The main ground cause for the huge differences between the Earth’s climate and that on the moon, is the big difference in mass of both celestial bodies.The earth is massive enough to hold an atmosphere and the moon — which only has about 1/80 of the Earth’s mass — is not.
A sufficiently dense atmosphere is necessary because the air pressure ensures that water can occur in liquid form; That sufficient heat is retained on the night side of a planet; That the heat supplied by the sun is divided by the weather and water so that it is not too hot or too cold for life in most places; That certain life-threatening (ionizing) radiation is largely stopped.
How does the retention of an atmosphere work?
The mass and size of a celestial body determine the escape speed; The speed that an object or particle must reach before it invils the space.When the sun heats the gases present, it concretely means that the gas molecules are accelerated. Some fast enough to reach the escape speed. The escape velocity of the moon is so low (in the order of 2 km/s) that the ever present primem atmosphere could evaporate into space within a few million years. (Such an atmosphere arises because the planets are still very hot shortly after their emergence and so many gases are released from the rock.) However, the earth could hold a large part of its primem atmosphere — thanks to a much higher escape speed of about 11 km/s — and it has slowly turned into a liveable atmosphere with the composition we know now.
The larger mass of the Earth still has a second important effect: the interior of the Earth is much hotter (less far cooled) than the inner of the moon.As a result, a part of the core is liquid and this liquid part (which consists largely of iron and nickel) takes care of the rotation of the Earth (and the tidal effects of the moon — no one has said that the moon is not important) as a kind of large alternator For the Earth’s magnetic field. This magnetic field ensures that all sorts of charged particles of the sun (the so-called solar wind) cannot fire the atmosphere. This would eventually also evaporate the atmosphere. Moreover, these charged particles are also hazardous to life forms on the Earth’s surface. Thanks to our magnetic field, we are therefore protected in two ways.
We have barely had any liquid water.This is necessary for the existence of life as we know it. Because liquid water cannot exist on the surface of the moon in the absence of a significant atmosphere, it is very unlikely that we will ever find life there. However, small amounts of water ice are present on the moon in deep craters. It is therefore not entirely unthinkable that in the bottom of the moon at some depth also water occurs. May be partly or sometimes liquid.