First of all, thank you for asking an interesting question,
To fully answer this you have to go very far back in time,
0.The starting point
Our first stop is the year 11,000 BC. At present, around the world except for a few islands colonized by humans.You can consider this as a kind of starting point. Everyone across the Earth lives as a hunter or collector in small groups of people who usually pull around as nomads. From this However, the moment is a differentiation that is noticeable until today.
- The Agricultural Revolution
The first major event that brings differentiation is the emergence of agriculture.
I call it an event, but agriculture is in reality very gradually emerging.
In The map above you can see all areas where agriculture is independent 芒 鈧?虄out of鈩?The very first and most important area where agriculture arose, most people still know of their high school years, this is the Fertile Crescent.
Around 8500 V. C, agriculture will be created in the Fertile Crescent moon.
Later on, I will elaborate on why agriculture has just emerged. From the Fertile Crescent, agriculture has spread to Central Asia and Europe.
The second main place where agriculture will emerge is in China, here would be invented from 7000 BC independently of the Fertile Crescent agriculture.In the other places indicated on the first map, agriculture would only later arise because a number of important conditions for agriculture were to a lesser extent fulfilled.
Why was agriculture the first in the Fertile Crescent?
Here you can see a map with the most productive agricultural areas today (yellow) and the places where agriculture originated (orange).
As you can see these with the exception of China and the US do not fully correspond to each other.
Certainly not in Europe. You clearly need more than just a suitable climate to create agriculture. The right kind of crops must be present.
We all know the most suitable kind of crop for agriculture.
Grain but also other types of grass seeds are ideal for agriculture.
Most types of grasses occur in Mediterranean climate zones.
The Mediterranean Sea has all the places on Earth most species of plants suitable for agriculture. I am not going to go into detail about this because it will all be a bit lengthy.
Now I have just given a lot of explanations about where agriculture originated. But:
Why is agriculture so important?
Thanks to agriculture, people get for the first time a 芒 鈧?虄food-鈩?They also need to pull around less as nomads and can settle for a longer duration on 脙 漏 脙 漏 N Place.The food surplus allows many larger groups of people to live together. Not everyone needs to hunt or gather anymore. Other professions are also created. Because more people are now together in one group, there is also more need for structure. Societies are given the opportunity to have a kind of primitive political elite.
The first civilization we usually talk about, Mesopotamia, will have arisen AROUND 6800 BC near the Fertile Crescent.
Dissemination of agriculture to Europe:
As you would on a previous map, namely:
Though it could see, agriculture has not emerged in the places that are most suitable for it.
However, agriculture is spreading rapidly across Europe and Asia from a certain point of time.
This map may also give some insight on why early European history was dominated by the Greeks and Romans.
Areas that used to be farming are going to have a head start in other areas that only later experience this transition.
As this ticket already showed, Europe is very suitable for agriculture, so as soon as the idea spreads to this, we make an eager use of it.
I have not had it any more about China but also China will start about concurrently with Greece to agriculture, around 7000 BC. Unlike in Europe, the areas where agriculture is created in China are very suitable for agriculture.
As a result of all this, you can argue that by the agricultural revolution both China and Eurasia are already very early ahead of the rest of the world.
Another huge early advantage that I had not yet talked about is the domestication of (large) mammals.
The domestication of large mammals
I will try to deal less in detail here as with the agricultural revolution.
As you can see here are some that we know all too well already very early domesticated.
It is noteworthy, moreover, that most mammals that were of interest to man come from Eurasia and not elsewhere. Eurasia is a huge area but the fact that we have previously had access to animals, which can serve as both manpower and food has helped us a great deal with our development.
Why are animals mainly domesticated in Eurasia and not in Africa?Do you have a huge amount of mammals in Africa?
Here you can see that both Austral茂e and America have a lack of suitable animal species to make domestication useful.
The largest number of large mammals for domestication are located in Eurasia and Africa.
However, it is noteworthy that in Africa there are no domesticated animals while this happened in Europe.However, few of the large mammals in Africa are really suitable for domestication. Many have been living together with humanoids for a very long time (since man has migrated from Africa.) Animals are often shy or aggressive towards humans. Carnivores like the lion are not suitable anyway.
The conclusion is that Eurasia had both an early advantage in terms of agriculture and domestication of animals.
3. dissemination of technology and formation of states.
With the emergence of agriculture, civilizations are constantly becoming larger and more complex.Technology is not something that is passively distributed. States with better technology are going to be stronger and to depress weaker states. But at Victory the technology of stronger states will spread. Also, areas in addition to developing areas are going to have to organise themselves better to defend themselves. Taking into account this rather brutal way of spreading technology, like the topography of the areas, you can draw up a kind of mathematical model of where and how you expect civilizations to proliferate.
In this model, the earth is divided into cells.These cells can have a number of beneficial technologies. Neighbouring cells can be attacked and their technologies are merged successfully. States can also fall apart by internal rebellion. I don’t know the exact details of the model.
Below you see a number of tickets with the evolution of large states.We are going through war and technology.
In the right column you can see the mathematical model assuming 芒 鈧?虄warscellen芒 鈧劉 and in the left column you find the actual measured data
The model does not fully correspond to the actual measured data because we do not know everything.
You may well see how, in 1500BC-500BC, there were especially large societies in the areas where agriculture first came into being, but this has gradually spread to neighbouring areas over the years.
If you look at Figure E you can get a very nice picture of where there are large States between the year 500 and 1500
In This video you can also see the evolution of large states In more detail.
Pay particular attention to the data, the simulation is less interesting.
It is quite remarkable that 1500 Europe is no longer developed as China.
Europe and parts of Asia do have a big edge over the rest of the world.How is it that, in the end, Europe was the area that would colonise the world and bring about the industrial revolution and not China?
4.Why Europe and not China?
It is undeniable that, as a result of colonialism, Europe has become enormously rich.Just as trade made a huge advantage for all the parties that participated in it.
China clearly had the force majeure in the 15th century.
How is it now that it was Europe that colonized and discovered the world and not China?
Here you see an image of the Santa Maria (the ship that discovered Columbus America) and a Chinese 芒 鈧?虄schattenschip芒 鈧劉 芒 鈧劉.
Just as Europe made a lot of discovery tours, China was also working on this during the Middle Ages.
Here you see the travels of Zheng He, a Chinese admiral and 脙 漏 脙 漏 N of the most important Chinese explorers.
That gigantic ship what I showed earlier was his ship. Zheng He had authority over the entire Chinese fleet.
I don’t know much about Chinese history yet, so I apologize if this is less accurate.
At the time there was a revolt and Zheng He came into trouble with the emperor of China.In the end this has fired the entire Zheng He fleet and destroyed all travel documents that Zheng He made. Where Europe would later discover the world and trade drove China went into a kind of isolationism.
I am not saying that this was the only reason that Europe was given the force majeure, but I can say that hereafter Europe discovered America, drove a great deal of trade, and generally got a huge lead on the rest of the world.
The fact that Europe has much more mountains, and natural boundaries as China certainly played a role.China is 1 country where 1 stupid decision of the emperor has tremendous consequences. There was much more competition In Europe.
Columbus has joined a lot of countries for being able to sail for Spain.Also, a European country would never destroy its own fleet. If a country had to do this, other European countries would be given the force majeure.
I am not so deeply informed about the later periods, but this answer has been far too long.I hope you can get that info from the other answers.
I wanted to emphasize with my answer that Europa芒 鈧劉 s depended on a lot of things, and a succession of different advantages that have accumulated since the year 11,000 BC in which as hunters and collectors walked over the earth and still No one had a head start.We have had a lot of luck in Europe with our location, the fact that so much coast is connected to Europe is certainly not a coincidence either. I am no longer able to deal with that. There are so many things that come along when you go back far enough but I hope I have been able to teach you what.
It may also be that I have said with such a great answer what things wrong, I myself am still a student so if so I apologize for that.This is for me mainly a way to test how much I have remembered from the lessons;^)
Geography, Interaction Human Earth, course of Prof. Gerard Govers.
Turchin et al
The question has been put wrong.It is suggested that earlier societies such as ancient Rome, Central American Societies, the Imperial China and Mesopotamia had not been successful and that in the future there would be no developments comparing the current Be seen as old-fashioned and primitive.
At present, the European, Western, society is the most developed.I regard the United States Australia and New Zealand as European. That is not to say that Europe was always the most developed and that this will always remain the same. Civilizations, centres of power and economic centroid have been coming for millennia, and Europe is now in the turn. In particular, China and India were the most successful for this. And for that time you have to look at what is now Iraq. Agriculture has been invented and most of the food crops come from there.
The time when Europe is dominant is only a very short time in world history.Only So鈩?N 700 years of the more than 12,000 years that civilizations exist in this world. Over Another 700 years, the world looks completely different again, with other civilizations on other continents.
There are several factors why Western Europe began to build a lead from the thirteenth century.
- Europe was politically divided.
Local rulers had to compete with each other to get the best people. They did so by giving rights and keeping taxes within limits. This resulted in freer communities.
Because of this, there was a certain separation of powers and no absolute truth.
In our regions, women were an independent legal entity and not just the daughter or wife of a man. This meant that more power was present. According to Tine de Moor and Jan Luiten van Zanden in women and the birth of capitalism in western Europe (Amsterdam, 2006) This was also one of the factors that led to the birth of capitalism.
Additional factors are mentioned. In fact, libraries have been written about it. I mention this because I find this interesting and stimulating. In my opinion, there is only one all-determining reason.In Europe, an innovative mentality arose after the Middle Ages. Look at Leonardo, who has always been buzzing with new ideas and started working on it. During the Renaissance, a mentality arose in which people began to believe that they could determine their own fate and that everything could get better.
The latter was fully worked on.The curiosity became stronger than the religious Dogma芒 鈧劉 s and the desire for understanding how the world works, led to the development of science. That renaissance curiosity and that urge for improvement and renewal drives Westerners to the present day.
Many cultures once made a growth spurt, but thought it was so good.Egypt and China are examples of this. The Arab world struggled with the idea that looking for physical laws, was equal to denying the omnipotence of Allah. It is not restricted by physical laws. Between 1000 and 1100 thereby the Islamic science came to a halt.
For us, the urge for continual innovation feels like a general human trait.This has not been the case in the past in many cultures.
Coincidence and happiness.
In The Early Middle Ages, Europe is one of the world’s most vile regions.However, it also supports Roman civilization and the central authority of the church is a formative element. (only because of the struggle for power between nobility and clergy)
Urbanization and a free class of citizens/traders is a prerequisite for development.You can see this urbanisation anywhere in the world, except Australia.
If there are several potential winners in a running race, the one that does not go down wins.In the later Middle Ages, Islam no longer focused on reality as a source of knowledge, but on the Koran, the Book of knowledge in which everything you need to know. So Islam went down.
In 1494, Byzantium, the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire, fell to an end to the Roman Empire.By the conquest of the small-Asia by the Turks the trade route to China and India was choirs. This stimated the discovery journeys, in order to find a route to Asia overseas.
The discovery of the Americas was a fluke, but incomprehensible is the conquest of Mexico and especially the conquest of Peru.You can only read the reports of this in amazement. The Aztecs and Incas continually have the opportunity to finish the group of European bandits, but they are completely overbluffing.
Christianity plays a major role in the emergence of Europe.The faith is used to subjugate the Gentiles. The Spanish Inquisition, of course, also made the population morally, so that the Spanish Catholic also liked to spread the faith with the sword in the hand. In The Netherlands, the religious war against the Spaniards also had a moral effect: convinced of your own right, you do not have to take into account the opinion of another.
An important aspect was also the population pressure.The good food supply would lead to overcrowding. Though the emigration to the Americas was just from Andalusia and the Extremadura; The poorer regions of Spain.
Coincidences play an important role, but as soon as there is a small advantage, it can reinforce itself, about as much as it is by chance that Microsoft or Apple have become known and great, even though Bill Gates and Steve Jobs also managed to seize their chances.
In World History is 500 years but a short period.As you look through time to the world, you will always see civilization centres rising and moving elsewhere.
In contrast to all other cultures, the European has developed an extraordinarily powerful method, to understand man, the world and God.This method is characterized by the philosophy of which, without exception, all the special sciences have arisen with their very specific explanatory methods.By now, all other world cultures have taken over this method or have been taken over by it. The modern legal doctrine with its human right and international law has also been deeply influenced by philosophy, although its methodical roots are rather in the Roman right-thinking, where, however, they were already considered early philosophically.
I believe that ‘ human strength ‘ is a factor of importance.You see in all cultures that certain steps in development were only possible if there is a certain critical mass-a certain size of the population. Then the question is how in a society that human strength is used. In China, the board was central and stubborn. That means less input from others and thus less thinking power.
In Europe, you also see countries where individualisation and civil society are developing more rapidly, increasing entrepreneurship and thus creating a lead in relation to more autocratic governed countries.
It is clear that in all its divisions and strongly developed civil society, and despite its limited size, the Republic soon managed to pursue the southern European powers.The English knew a similar development soon came alongside. The fact that the Americans finally took over the most powerful position also has to do with the ingrained individualism and entrepreneurship in the creation of that nation.
Looking at the current emergence of China from this perspective, you could at first glance argue that the Chinese are breaking that trend.But nothing is less true: China’s current growth came only from the ground when the Chinese government was going to make more space for entrepreneurship and individual freedom. And that spirit is no longer going back into the bottle, even though they are still trying.
I believe that Europe was best behind it.The first developed continent was Asia. The first cities were built in Mesopotamie in Iraq. The Greek Cuktuur comes from Asia, while Infus culture in India had a sewer system while our ancestors still lived in thatched huts. While they built walled cities in China, we still lived here in isolated hamlets and farms.
Europe made a pretty impressive catching-up maneuver around the 16th century, but before then it was only an amoeal intention in comparison to China and India.
Europe?If I am not mistaken, the Chinese already Haden a thriving society, far ahead of Europe. I would not even be in a hurry if South America already knew civilized peoples when Europe was still wandering in a bearskin
You are mistaken.Africa was very developed before Europe was. Example:
- Benin City in Nigeria was a city with an area of 6500 km2.
Paving and sewers