The earliest knowninstruments, which were specially made for making music, are the bone flutes of Geißenklösterle on the Swabian Alb, which are exhibited in the Prehistoric Museum Blaubeuren.They are about 35,000 years old. However, most anthropologists and evolutionary psychologists agree that music was part of the everyday life of humans and their ancestors long before.Why man has acquired musical abilities in the course of his evolution is unclear.
The bird song has characteristics that are mimictically imitated by humans, tone and tonal group repetitions, tone series, motifs and main tones as approaches to economiesof scale.Thus, even in fontless cultures, melody types consisting of continuous repetitions of the same motif can be found from a few tones within a third– to quartraums.This architectural feature is still present in the Gregorian chorale,in the sequences of the high Middle Ages and in numerous European folk songs with stanzaconstruction, e.g. in the Schnadahüpfl.
The rhythm is rarely bound to bar schemes or.her divisions and accents change frequently by adapting to the melodic phrasing. However, it is not shapeless, but polyrhythmic like traditional Africanmusic, which layers rhythmic patterns on top of each other, especially when singing with accompanying idiophones.The offbeat, which later became characteristic of jazz, can also be found, i.e. the emphasis on the weak bar parts.
The Ancient Oriental writing cultures in Mesopotamia began in the 4th millennium BC.with the Sumerians.They invented the first multi-stringed chordophone, the lyre, which in the following centuries became a harp with four to ten strings and resonant body.
In ancient Egypt from about 2700 BC.the instruments expanded to include the bow harp. During this time, secular music and pure instrumental music were also created.
There are only conjectures about the beginnings of Indian music in the third millennium BC.It may have taken inspiration from Mesopotamian and Egyptian culture. By the immigration of the Aryans around 1500 BC.Western influences to India.
China already had a fully developed music in antiquity.The most important suggestions came mainly from Mesopotamia. Own inventions were a scale system, pentatonic tonal conductors and a fixed pitch tuning.The compositions were unanimous and homophonic.
Main article: Music of Antiquity
Since its creation, music has been involved for a long time in Rite, Kult, but possibly also in the normal everyday life of the early high cultures, where it became an autonomous artonly late.Just as many cultures do not know their own concept for music up to the present day, which they regard as a unity of dance, cult and language, the “”” from Greek antiquitydates back to the 4th century BC. a unity of poetry, dance and sound art, from which the latter was dissolved by a concept.Nevertheless, she has maintained her close relationship with poetry and dance, which have emerged as a defining moment in the course of music history.
In the Middle Ages, music was strongly influenced by numerical orders, under whose influence it was ars musica together with arithmetic, geometry and astronomy the logical-argumentative quadrivium within the Artes was liberal, so in the Renaissance for the first time the creative achievement of the composer was preferred to the craftsmanship acquired through practice.At that time, the instrumental works arose in art music, which sought to convey meaning without language or singing. The predominant idea of the 16th to 18th centuries was the mimesisalready described in Aristotelian poetry, the imitation of the outer nature to the sound painting and the inner nature of man in the representation of affect.
With the beginning of rationalism in the 17th century, the creative aspect prevailed.In Romanticism, the focus of the study was on personal-subjective experience and feeling and its metaphysical meaning.As extensions of musical expression and positions regarding the ability of music to communicate extra-musical content, names such as absolutemusic, program music and symphonic poetryhave emerged to irreconcilable discussion between the opposing parties.At the same time, entertainment music became more and more independent and since the end of the 19th century, under the influences of, among others, African-American folk music, grew into a separate branch, which eventually included jazz, pop and rock music with a diversity of highly differentiated individual genres.Since at the turn of the 20th century, on the one hand, music history research met with greater interest and, on the other hand, sound recording allowed the technical reproduction of music, it gained in all its well-known historical, social and ethnic forms, a presence and availability that continues to this day, which was further enhanced by the massmedia, most recently by the digital revolution.This, and the style pluralism of modernity,which started around 1910, during which the New Music reacted to changed social functions or created them itself, create a blurring of the hitherto traditional boundaries of genres, styles and the divisions U- and E-music, for example in emerging forms such as Third Stream, Digital Hardcore, Crossover and World Music.The musical thinking of postmodernism, in turn, tends towards an aesthetic universalism that incorporates extra-musical seam – multimedia or in the sense of a complete work of art – or to new models of thought, as they do in cultures and philosophies outside the West.
See also: Music of the Middle Ages
See also: Renaissance music
.The term music has experienced several changes of meaning in the past millennia.In the 4th century BC, the art unit was dissolved.the musica, whose view was initially that of a theoretically capable, mathematically determined science.Irrespective of the rest of the development towards fine art, it remained in Protestant circles until the 18th century.
Thus, until the decisive change of meaning that introduced the current concept of music, the term musica cannot be understood solely as “music theory”, it arises in its diversity of definitions only from the conception of individual epochs, their classifications. and differentiations.
first appeared in the female form in 476 BC in Pindar’s first Olympic Ode.The adjective mousik’s (a) flowed as musicus (-a, -um) ‘concerning music, musically; also: concerning poetry, poetic,’ musicus (-i, m.) ‘musician, sound artist; also: Poets’, musica (-ae, f.) and musice (-es, f.) ‘Musenkunst, Music (in the sense of the ancients, with the epitome of poetry)’ and musicalis (-e) ‘musical’ into the Latin language.
The Greek and Latin musica finally entered theoretical literature as a technical word.From there, almost all European languages and Arabicadopted the term in different spellings and accents.Only in a few languages do there are their own embossings, for example hudba in Czech and Slovak, glazbain Croatian
, as well as Chinese ynyu, Korean’ mak/eumak, Japanese Ongaku
, Anglo-Saxon sw’gcr ft
, Icelandic t’nlist
, Dutch toon art(next to muziek)
, Danish clay art (besides music)
, Norwegian tonekunst (next to musikk)
, Swedish tonkonst (next to music)
.At first, only the basic word appeared in the German language, Old High German m seke and Middle High German m’sik.From the 15th century onwards, derivatives such as musicians or music were formed.It was not until the 17th and 18th centuries that the emphasis changed under the influence of frz. musique on the second syllable, as it is still valid today in the standard German language.
The question of what music is or is not is as old as thinking about music itself.Despite the numerous historical attempts to arrive at a general and fundamental concept of music, there was and still is no single valid definition. The previous definitions each focused on a component of the phenomenon of music. The history of definition is characterized by many contradictions: music as rational, numerical science, music as emotional art, music in apollinic or Dionysianunderstanding, music as pure theory or pure practice – or as a unit both components.
The music literature of antiquity produced numerous attempts at definition, but these are characterized by the fact that they focused on the musical material, the scales, and their mathematical foundations, and as the nature of the sound structure.
Cassiodor, who contributed to the development of the Seven Free Arts in a combination of ancient science and the Christian faith, defined music as “(…) disciplina, quae de numeris loquitur” (“Music is knowledge expressed by numbers”).This logical-rational understanding was followed by Alkuin and Rabanus Maurus.Isidor of Seville spoke of “Musica est peritia modulationis sono cantique consistens” (“Music consists of the experience of sounding rhythm and singing”).Dominicus Gundisalvi, Robert Kilwardby, Bartholomaeus Anglicus, Walter Odington and Johannes Tinctoris.
Augustin’s definition underwent a major change in the Middle Ages, first due to the treatise Dialogus de musica attributed to The Odo of Cluny.This extended the view by a theological component, citing “concordia vocis et mentis”, the “unity between voice and spirit” as the central point of making music.The idea was taken up by Philippe de Vitry.An anonymous treatise of the Middle Ages leads from “Musica est scientia veraciter canendi” (“Music is the science of true singing”), more important than theoretical knowledge and practical skill is the sincerity of the singer.This was found in Johannes de Muris and Adam of Fulda.
During the 15th and 16th centuries, the definitions of Augustin and Boéthius continued to apply.At the same time, an interpretation related to music practice emerged, which became popular as “Musica est ars recte canendi” (“Music is the art of singing properly”) – although in the numerous treatises also debite (“due”), perite (“knowledged”), certe (“safe”) or rite (“according to custom or custom”).It is published by Johann Spangenberg, Heinrich Faber, Martin Agricola, Lucas Lossius, Adam Gumpelzhaimer and Bartholomäus Gesius, whose music-theoretical guides to the 17th century for the lessons were used in Latin schools, with the emphasis on singing.As a German motto music is the right singing art quoted him Daniel Friderici in his Musica Figuralis (1619).
The rationalism of the 18th century is reflected in the concept of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz‘: “Musica est exercitium arithmeticae occultum nescientis se numerare animi” (“Music is a hidden arithmetic of its counting” unconscious mind”).
With the late 18th century, at the beginning of the Viennese classical music and on the eve of the French Revolution,the rationalist concept of music replaced its diametrically opposed: a subjective,purely emotionally focused Definition prevailed.If musicians and composers and theorists had previously achieved the definition, the essential definitions from the artist’s perspective provided the interlocking of aesthetics towards the romantic unity of the arts. Poets such as Wilhelm Heinse, Novalis, Wilhelm Heinrich Wackenroder and Jean Paul.Personal experience and feeling was in the foreground.
As Johann Georg Sulzerput it: “Music is a sequence of sounds that arise from passionate sensation and therefore describe them.” Heinrich Christoph Koch’s word “Music is the art of expressing sensations through tones”is considered to be exemplary for the entire century.This seemed little changed from Gottfried Weber to Arrey von Dommer.The popular view, except for the present, that music is a “language of feelings” was generally accepted. The founder of historical musicology Johann Nikolaus Forkel expressed himself in this way, as did the composers Carl Maria von Weber, Anton Friedrich Justus Thibaut and Richard Wagner.Wagner’s concept of the gesamtkunstwerk shaped the further development.
Eduard Hanslick (1865)
According to the rationalist conception, the musical thinking of the 19th century is also present.As early as 1826, Hans Georg Nägeli had called the music a “moving play of tones and sound series”.
Main article: Twelve-tone music
Arnold Schönberg (1948)
Still under the influence of the 19th century, Ernst Kurth’s turn to the irrational forces of music was in his late work Romantic Harmonism and its Crisis in Wagner’s “Tristan“ (1920): “Music is the radiance of far more powerful primal processes, whose forces revolve in the inaudible.
What is commonly referred to as music is in reality only its ending. Music is a force of nature in us, a dynamic of wills.” Just in 1926, Hans Pfitzner’s musical thinking was still rooted in the spirit of late Romanticism,especially in Schopenhauer’s view: “Music [is the image of the ansich of the world, that is, of the will, reflecting its innermost emotions.”
In stylistic pluralism from the age of modernity, it is no longer possible to make a valid statement about the nature of music, since the composers are individually above their aesthetic views.Since then, they have based their definition of music on their own composition practice.
“Art is simple imitation of nature at the lowest level.
But soon it is imitation of nature in the extended sense of the term, i.e. not only imitation of the outer nature, but also of the inner nature. In other words, it does not merely represent objects or occasions that make an impression, but above all these impressions themselves. At its highest level, art deals exclusively with the reproduction of the inner nature. Only the imitation of impressions, which have now entered into connections to new complexes, to new movements through association with each other and with other sensory impressions, is their purpose.”
– Arnold Schönberg: Harmony Doctrine
“For I believe that music is inherently incapable of ‘expressing’ anything, whatever it may be: a feeling, an attitude, a psychological state, a natural phenomenon or anything else.
The ‘expression’ has never been an immanent characteristic of music, and in no way does its raison d’etre depend on the ‘expression’. If, as is almost always the case, the music seems to express something, this is illusion and not reality. (…) The phenomenon of music is given for the sole purpose of establishing an order between things and, above all, setting an order between man and time.”
Igor Stravinsky: Chroniques de ma vie
After 1945, general definitions were rarely used.On the one hand, since the beginning of modern times, attempts at determination had always been exclusively related to art music and entertainment music – dance and salonmusic, operetta and musical, jazz, pop, Rock music as well as electronic music genres such as techno and industrial etc.- largely hidden. On the other hand, the trend continued towards designs that some composers did only for themselves, sometimes only for individual works.These definitions were sometimes oriented towards the anchoring in the transcendental, e.g. with Karlheinz Stockhausen, but sometimes also under the influence of Happening, Fluxus, Zen and other spiritual ideas radical Redefinitions up to “non-music” or the idea of music of the actually imaginable, as John Cage put it: “The music I prefer, even to my own or anybody elses’s, is what we are hearing if we are just quiet.” (“The music I prefer, my own or the music of others, is what we hear when we’re just still.”)
The term music is sound and perceptible soundaccording to modern understanding.However, this significance only emerged in a process that lasted more than two millennia and produced a variety of classifications that reflect the respective understanding of the world of its origin.
Like the first definitions, the first distinctions between theory and practice had their origins in antiquity.The pair of terms goes to Aristoxenos in the 4th century BC.back. Plutarch made a further differentiation of the theoretical components with the subdivision into harmonics (as a relationship of the tones to each other is meant by the melodic), rhythm and metric.While Plutarch’s classification was still in use until the 16th century, the juxtaposition of Aristoxenos is still valid today.
Aristeides Quintilianusprovided a more far-ranging subdivision.He introduces acoustics into the theoretical field as a teaching of sound, in the practical the music pedagogy.He credited melodic and rhythmic music practice, which he expanded at the same time to include the teachings of the human voice and musical instruments.
The Sphere Harmony found its last and most comprehensive description in Johannes Kepler’s Harmonices mundi (1619).
From the planetary movements he calculated sound ratios, from the velocities of the bodies in the apsesnumerical ratios, which correspond to an interval:
Mercury: small decime – Venus: Di’sis – Earth: Halftone – Mars: Quinte – Jupiter: small third – Saturn: large third
At the transition to the early Middle Ages, Boethius divided the music into three parts.The first is the musica mundana, the well-known idea since Pythagoras of an inaudible but conceivable as cosmological numerical ratios of the planetary orbits sphere music.The second is the musica humana, which acts as a divine harmony of the body and soul of man.The third is the musica instrumentalis, the actual sounding and audible music – this in turn is divorced after the instrumentum naturale, i.e. the vocal musicproduced by the “natural instrument”, and the instrumentum artificiale, i.e. the instrumental musicthat the “artificial sound tools” produce.
Around 630 Isidor of Seville arranged the sounding music into three areas according to the type of sound production: firstly the musica harmonica, the vocal music, secondly the musica rhythmica, the music of the string and percussion instruments , thirdly, the musica organica, the music of wind instruments.For the first time, he gave the concepts of harmony and rhythm a second meaning that went beyond Plutarch.
At the end of the 8th century, Regino von Prüm reclassified the music by grouping its parts into two larger areas.This is on the one hand the musica naturalis, the sphere and body-soul harmony created by God’s creation as well as the sung music, on the other hand the musica artificialis of the artificial sound generators invented by man, i.e. all instrument types.In the 9th/10th In the 19th century, Al-Féraba standardized the previous classifications into the pair of theory and practice; to the theory he only calculated the speculative consideration of music, i.e. in the broader sense all music philosophy, to practice all other areas that relate to the active music practice with its craftsmanship.The medieval classifications were received until the 17th century, a processing of the Bo’thius even after, as with Pietro Cerone, Athanasius Kircher or Johann Mattheson.
In addition to the main classifications, from the Middle Ages onwards, classifications also appeared in literature, which tried to arrange the individual areas of music according to other points of view.The following pairs of opposites appeared:
- musica plana or musica choralis (unanimous music) opposite musica mensuralis or musica figuralis (multi-voiced music)
- musica recta or musica vera (music from the diatonic clay stock) opposite musica falsa or musica ficta (music from the chromatic stock of clay)
- musica regulata (art music) opposite musica usualis (use, i.e. folk music)
- musica simplex vel civilis vel vulgaris pro illitteratis, the “simple, bourgeois, folk music for the uneducated”, i.e. any form of secular music
- musica composita vel regularis vel canonica pro litteratis, the “regular and artistically composed music for the educated”, i.e. the early polyphony
- musica ecclesiastica, the church music, i.e. the Gregorian chorale
In the 16th century the terms musica reservata and Musica Poeticaappeared, the former as a term for the new style of expression of Renaissancemusic, the latter as a term for composition.Together with the new embossings musica theoretica and musica practica, it established itself within a three-division according to ancient models.At the same time, it marks the first beginnings for a reassessment of the composer, who was previously regarded as a skilled “tone setter” and is now gradually rising into a creative artist personality in the social fabric.
The theorists of the 16th century, led by Friedrich Wilhelm Marpurg, Jakob Adlung and Jean-Jacques Rousseau, first pursued the ancient distinction between theory and practice.They divided the theory into four subjects, acoustics, canonical (the teaching of forms and proportions), grammar (the teaching of intervals)and aesthetics; they divided the practice into composition and execution, i.e. production and reproduction of the musical work of art.
The linguist Kaspar von Stieler introduced the most common German-language names into lexicography with his dictionary Der Teutschen Sprache Stammbaum and Fortwachs (1691).Key words such as churchmusic, chamber music and table music were performed here for the first time.The diverse compositions on the basic word -music in terms of instrumentation(harmony music), function (film music) or technique (serial music) originated here.At this point, the use of language also changed, which always meant the sounding, sensually perceptible music in the basic word music and now finally separated from the theoretical concept of Musica.As a further contribution to terminology, Johann Gottfried Walther developed a large number of definitions in the Musical Lexicon (1732), such as the historical terms musica antica and musica moderna or the ethnological musica orientalis and musica occidentalis.
The starting material of the sounding music are sound events, i.e. sounds (periodic vibrations), sounds (non-periodic vibrations), in individual cases noise(vibrations with statistically normally distributed frequency changes) and bang (pulse-like, non-periodic energy boost without tone).At the same time, they are their natural basis, which arises without the intervention of man, but can be generated by man just as willfully and can be changed in their individual parameters.
- Changing the base frequency creates a perceptible and distinguishable pitch.
- According to the amplitudes, the volumechanges due to the resulting adjustment of the sound change pressure.
- The temporal extent of the sound event defines the tone duration.
- Changes in the acousticspectrum, e.g. due to modifications of the frequency spectrum or
None of the parameters should be considered independently of the others.In the conscious control of the individual sizes, sounds and soundsare created, in the narrower sense the materials from which order principles emerge, which can be used for the design of arbitrary complex space-time formations: melodic, Rhythmics, Harmonics.From them, in turn, musical worksultimately emerge in a creative process.
On the one hand, the musical material is subject to physical self-legalities, such as the overtone series or numerical ratios,and on the other hand, by the way it is produced with the humanvoice, with musical instruments or with electric sound generators to certain tonal characteristics.
In addition to the ordered acoustic material, the second elemental element of the music contains the spiritual idea, which does not – like form and content – stand next to the material, but forms a holistic form with it.Tradition and history emerge from the confrontation with the spiritual form.
Main article: Musicology
As a curriculum, musicology comprises those scientific disciplines in the humanities, cultural, social and scientific-technical contexts, the contents of which are the research and reflective representation of music in its various historical, social, ethnic andnational phenomena. The subject of musicology is all manifestations of music, its theory, its production and reception, its functions and effects as well as its manifestations from the musical source material sound to the complex individual work.
Since the 20th century, musicology has been divided into three sub-areas, historical musicology, systematic musicology and music ethnology.This structure is not always strictly adhered to. While on the one hand music ethnology can also be attributed to the systematic branch, on the other hand practical areas are referred to as applied musicology.
Historical research areas of musicology are rather idiographical,i.e. describing the object in historical change, the systematic rather nomothetically,i.e. they seek to make general statements independent of space and time.Nevertheless, the scientific paradigms of the two fields are not to be regarded as absolute, since historical musicology also tries to recognize laws over time, while systematics and ethnology historical changes in their objects.
Historical musicology encompasses all sub-disciplines of musical historiography and is mainly devoted to the development of sources of European art, folk and entertainment music.Systematic musicology, on the other hand, is more influenced than its historically oriented parallel branch of the humanities and social sciences, natural and structural sciences and applies their epistemological and empirical methods.
Music ethnology deals with the music that exists in the customs of ethnic groups.Of interest are the musical cultures of the natural peoples,which do not have writing and notation, as well as – from a historical point of view – the music of the high cultures and their influences.Important research subjects are soundsystems, rhythms, instruments, theory, genres and forms of music against the background of religion, art, language, sociological and economic order.
Beyond the canon of musicological disciplines, music is the subject of research in mathematics and communicationscience, medicine and neuroscience, archaeology, Literature and theatre studies.A distinction must be made in individual cases as to whether music is the research object of other sciences or whether musicology investigates non-musical fields. Music therapy occupies a special position, combining medical and psychological knowledge and methods with those of music pedagogy.
Music can also be regarded as a drawing system.In this way, music can communicate intended meanings during active, understanding listening.Hearing is a structuring process in which the listener distinguishes and cognitively processes iconic, indexical and symbolic character qualities.This is based on the original experiences of man to visually hear and assign sound events – e.g. thunder as a threatening natural event – and to reflect emotionally, and on the aesthetic appropriation of the acoustic environment on the other.This ranges from the functionalization of the clay structures as signals to the symbolic transcendence of entire works.
The view of the origin of the music from the origin of the language or languagetheir common origin from an origin is based on cultural anthropological reasons.It is rooted in the ideas at the beginning of cultures. Reflections of the early unwritten cultures can also be found in the present among the natural peoples, partly in animistic or magicalform.The formula “In the beginning was the Word” ( Jn 1:1
) describes one of humanity’s oldest thoughts, the origin of word and sound from a divine act of creation.It occurs in almost all high cultures, in Egypt as the cry or laughter of the god Thot, in the Vedic culture as the insubstantial and inaudible world sound, which is the primal substance that gradually transforms into matter and created world.The creation myths often trace the materialization of the phonetic material to the word and the language.
Overlaps between music and language can be found in some areas; both have structure and rhetoric.Syntax does not exist in the classical sense of music and semantics usually only come to it through additional linguistic elements, or can arise by encryption within its writing. The latter, however, is not necessarily audible. Music is therefore not a language, but only language-like.
A major difference between the two is the expressive and communication ability of semantic content.Music can’t communicate denotate.It is only in a metaphorical sense, it does not communicate a label.Rather, it is a game of tones (and tone series).
In order to “understand” music aesthetically, the listener must understand the inner-musical definition processes that organize the music as a system, e.g. recognize dissonances that need to be dissolved depending on a tonal context.Where language similarity occurs, as in music oriented towards regular rhetoric in the sense of the Liberal Arts in the Middle Ages and Baroque,the listener can basically play the same music without understanding or knowing the rules and without knowledge of a context as music.Musical thinking and poetic thinking are autonomous.
It only builds a connection of meaning within the music.
Even a syntactic order, which would be worn semantically, is not given in the music.There are no logical links, nor true or false “statements” on the basis of which one can formulate an aesthetic judgment about their meaning.Logical statements can always be made in the form of language, while musical “statements” can only be made within music through music.For example, a chord sequencethat ends in a fallacy does not make an extra-musical sense, but only acquires its meaning within the musical syntaxwithin which it builds relationships.
The drawing systems of language and music are therefore fundamentally different.While language says, the music shows
While language, inter alia by means of definitions, is aimed at unambiguousness, the arts pursue the opposite goal: not the meanings in rem, but the potential human values, are the semantic field of art that is applied to all possible connotations.Music therefore requires an interpretation in order to understand it aesthetically at all.
Music is often understood as the “language of feelings”.It is able to describe emotions, emotions and motivational states and make them accessible to the listener through expression patterns.However, these are also not language-like signs, since, according to their psychophysiological basis, they ultimately appear as a continuum in an “emotional space”, i.e. not only as different emotional qualities, but in interactions and ambivalent states and gradients.The gesture of its expression is not an expansionless logical structure – as it exists in the conceptual pair of the descriptive and the designated – but temporal. It can be divided into itself, in terms of time, but also by overlapping emotions, e.g. in the emotional continuum “Joy + Grief – Anger”. An upswing can already have grief in it, or vice versa. The basic principle that makes gestural forms the meaning of musical signs is an analog codingthat uses indexical or iconic signs – they do not correspond to a single cognitive content, but to a class of cognitive Correlates.This is also evident in several music of the same text, which are perceived as differently appropriate, just as one can also inferior to several texts, each of which seems more or less appropriate.
However, they are not always categorical.Thus appears the same sign, the cuckoo call as a falling third or quarter, in the musical context in different senses: iconic as an acoustic image in the folk song cuckoo, cuckoo, calls it out of theforest, indexially as Expression of the experience of nature at the end of the scene at the Bach from Ludwig van Beethoven’s 6thSymphony, finally symbolic of the whole of nature at the beginning of the first movement of Gustav Mahler’s 1.Symphony.
This also includes stylizations such as the “Sigh” of the Mannheim School, a tone figure from a falling little second, which appears extremely frequently in Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart’s work and is already used in the baroque affect theory as a signs of (soul) pain.
Iconic characters can be found mainly in descriptive music, in program music as well as in filmmusic.The latter mainly uses the method known as Mickey-Mousing to mimic the visual characters of the film synchronously.Examples of iconic character use can also be found in the theory of affect, e.g. in the word-to-toneratio, after which high or low tones stood for “heaven” and “hell”.
The widest range of character usage is the Symbolic.This is no longer an image, but a sign representation based on convention.It is not semiotic, but it conveys a content, mostly non-musical. This can apply to all elements of the music: to the key in C major, which expresses the banality of money in the first scene of the second act of Alban Berg’s opera Wozzeck, to an interval such as the Tritonus , who stood as “Diabolus in Musica” for evil since the Middle Ages, on the individual tone d’, which in Bernd Alois Zimmermann’s work for deus, i.e. God stands, or on a rhythm that is set in the final movement of Mahler’s 6th.Symphony embodies fate.It is not possible to listen out without the prior knowledge of the symbol content.
In individual cases, symbolic content is used as ciphers, e.g. as a tone sequence B-A-C-H, which was used musically by Johann Sebastian Bach himself and by many other composers, or in Dmitri Shostakovich’s Name sign D-Es-C-H, which the composer used thematically in many of his works.
A Mannerist fringe phenomenon of symbolism is eyemusic, which transports the symbolic contents of the music not through its sound, but through the notational image, in which musical character qualities are conveyed through optical so that they only open up to the reader of a score.
Signals are a special case in the border area of music and acoustic communication.
They are usually used to transmit information and to trigger a desired action.Their character quality has to attract attention, for example due to high volume or high frequencies.If they are to provide precise information on a bindingly defined act, they must be clearly distinguished. In the narrower (musical) sense, this is especially true of military and hunting signals. However, semantising can also be found in this area.The hunting signal Fuchs dead, for example, which gives the hunting society information, is composed of musical images.After an iconic description of the fox’s jumping and fatal shooting, a stylized death charge and the symbolic Halalifollows.The signal starts with a three-time initial ring ingenuation that prompts crucifixion.The following verse is rung twice in the death of a woman, three times in the death of a man. The repetition of the initial part marks the end of the message.
In a metaphysical universality, as formulated by Charles S. Peirce for the process of semiosis, i.e. for the interaction of signs, objects and interpreters,the musical signs can be used in various His ways belong.In the ontological orphenomenological Frames are or appear in different categories analogous to a transcendental reduction: as being, iconic or indexical as the carrier of a function orin a human dimension, as a symbol beyond the human dimension, finally as a transcendent.
His and Function
His and Meaning
Meaning without being
Quarte as overtone
Quarte as Tonchiffre (e.g. as monogram a-d for “Antonon Dvoik” in his 6th Symphony)
Quarte in the Sphere Harmony
Birdsong in nature
Imitated birdsong as a lure
Birdsong as a symbol of nature, e.g. in Beethoven’s 6th Symphony
The scale rises step by step, the composer builds tension: he leaves the listener in the dark about the key for a long time.
Not all appearances or art structures reach the stage of transcendence; it is only the last conceivable stage to which the process of semiosis tends.The categorization is never static, characters can change their quality in the musical context, i.e. in the flow of time as well, or give them a different functionality. Thus, at the beginning of the final movement of Beethoven’s 1.symphony, an asemantic tone figure that always begins on the same fundamental note and increases with each new deployment; the “scale”, which is not initially determined in its key, since it can have both tonic and dominant reference, is functionalized with the onset of the faster main tempo as a motivic component of the first theme.However, the listener can only perform this assignment from the hearing impression afterwards, so that he only cognitively processes the semiotic process from the context of a larger unit.
Although ostensibly music appears as pure art of time and transitory, i.e. temporarily, compared to the static-permanent spatial arts ofpainting, sculpture, drawing, graphics and architecture,it is nevertheless of their spatial and non-temporal ideas and has also influenced them with their views of temporality and proportion.Terms such as “tonespace”, “timbre” or “hue”, “high/deep” tones and “light/dark” sounds and similar synaesthesiaexpressions, the ambiguity of “composition” in musical thought and in that of the visual arts are part of the ubiquitous description vocabulary.The experience that an acoustic effect such as reverberation or echo only arises in connection with the space belongs to the original possession of man.Since the earliest theoretical conceptions, parallels between acoustic and spatial-visual art forms have been named.
There are also similarities between music and the visual arts in terms of art-historical epochs, for example in connection with the Baroqueperiod.Since no clear demarcation of epochs can be made, however, the terms form theory (music) and art style are used.
It is based on the common mathematicalfoundations.The Pythagoreans understood the interval proportions as an expression of a cosmicharmony.Music, in their view, was a manifestation of number harmony, which also results in consonant intervals in swinging strings, when their lengths are in simple integer ratios.The proportions of numbers were regarded until the early modern era as an expression of beauty, just as only the arts, which apply numbers, dimensions and proportions, were considered suitable in antiquity and the Middle Ages to create beautiful things.Vitruvs architectural theory Writing De architectura libri decem made explicit reference to the ancient theoryof music, which he described as a basis for understanding architecture.
Medieval architecture took up the ancient ideas in a Christian sense.The Gothic style often showed interval proportions in the main dimensions of the church buildings.The example was the Solomonic temple, whose form, among others, Peter Abaelardus considered to be consonant.Complex mathematical phenomena such as the Golden Cut and the Fibonacci sequence were also interpreted as Christian.They appear in Filippo Brunellesi’s dome design of Santa Maria del Fiore as well as in Guillaume Dufay’s motet Nuper rosarum flores (1436).The work for the consecration of the Cathedral of Florence has the same proportions of numbers in the course of the tuning and the structure of the work that the architecture of the dome had determined.
The theorist Leon Battista Alberti defined an architectural theory in the Renaissance on the basis of vitruvian proportional theory.He developed ideal proportions for room sizes and heights, area subdivisions and room heights. Andrea Palladius Quattro libri dell’architettura (1570) systematized this theory of proportion on the basis of thirds,which had been first recognized as consonant intervals in Gioseffo Zarlinos Le istituzioni armoniche (1558).This led to a change in harmonythat extends to the present day.
Under the influence of modern music aesthetics, the musical reference to numbers in architectural theory gradually faded into the background.The taste judgment as a criterion of aesthetic assessment prevailed. It was not until the 20th century that numerical proportions, as architectural and musical parameters, once again came into the ranks of constructive elements. In architectural terms, this was Le Corbusier’s Modulorsystem.His student Iannis Xenakis developed the architectural idea in New Musicin the composition Métastasis (1953/54).He then implemented the compositional design in the design of the Philips Pavilion at Expo 58 in Brussels.
Among the synthetic art forms that emerged after the end of the universalharmony principle, Richard Wagner’s concept of the Gesamtkunstwerk became significant for the 19th century.Architecture took a leading position in the realization of the musical idea. It had to create the practical space environment for the unity of the arts, i.e. the musical drama.Wagner realized his demands in the Festspielhaus in Bayreuth, built by Otto Brückwald .
Expressionism began art synthesis in the early 20th century.The central vision of letting people overcome social boundaries led to many art designs, some of which were never realized. This included Alexander Nikolayevich Scriabin’s spherical “temple” for the mystery (1914), a work of revelation composed of word, sound, colour, movement and fragrance.
The art currents of the second half of the 20th century integrated musical elements into multimedia forms, in “sound sculptures” and “sound architecture”.Architecture increasingly became a temporal component, music a spatial component. Karlheinz Stockhausen combined his ideas of spatial music in a ball auditorium, which he installed at Expo ’70 in Osaka.The listeners sat in it on a sound-permeable floor, surrounded by electronicmusic.The loudspeakers distributed in the room made it possible to move the sounds in the room.
San Marco in Venice (Carlo Ponti, 1860s)
The composers explored the spatial effect of several ensembles and converted the results into new compositions.
The Alte Leipziger Gewandhaus consisted only of an extended upper floor.Nevertheless, from 1781 to 1884 it experienced the flourishing orchestral culture of German Romanticism.
Developed in the 16th century, the multi-church,which was maintained among the European music centres mainly at the Venetian St. Mark’s Cathedral, took advantage of the effect of several ensembles in the room.Chamber music and church music separated according to instrumentation,sentence rules and the way of presentation.They adapted to the acoustics of their performance venues. For this purpose, the architecture developed its own types of space, which were dedicated to music and created acoustically advantageous conditions for its performance. The first chambers were built in the princely palaces, later in castles and city apartments.This also changed the listening behaviour: music was heard for its own sake, free of functional binding and pure enjoyment of art.
The public concert system was created in Londonat the end of the 17th century.Music events no longer only took place in festival halls, taverns or churches, but in specially built concerthalls.Although the halls of this time only had a few hundred listeners, had no fixed seating and served not only the music but also all kinds of festive occasions, they already showed a considerably improved room acoustics,in which the orchestral music came to the fore. .The first building of the Leipzig Gewandhaus (1781) was exemplary.After its design as a narrow and long box hall with stage podium and flat parquet, many other halls were built in the 19th century, which the culturally interested bourgeoisie used as a place for music maintenance.
In particular, the symphonic works of romantic music with their enlarged orchestral cast benefited from the concert halls.The acoustics of these halls combined the fullness of sound with audibility; the narrow design led to strong reflection of the side sound, the large volume of space in relation to the inner surface optimised the reverberation time to an ideal dimension of one and a half to two seconds.The size of the halls – they now hold about 1,500 listeners – was the result of the fact that subscription concerts had established themselves as part of urban cultural life.The most important concert venues of this era are the Great Hall of the Vienna Musikverein (1870), the Neue Gewandhaus in Leipzig (1884) and the AmsterdamConcertgebouw (1888).
New technical possibilities and the need to use halls economically throughout, changed the architecture in modern times.Free-bearers Balconies, artistically designed halls in asymmetrical or funnel form and a capacity of up to 2,500 seats shaped the concert halls in the 20th century.The Philharmonie in Berlin and the Royal Festival Hall in London were two important representatives of new types of construction.The latter was the first concert hall built according to acoustic calculations. Since the 1960s, there has been a trend to build halls with variable acoustics that are suitable for different types of music.
A. Hartmann: Gate of Kiev (1866)
The manifold relationships between music and visual arts were historically as much a way through the theoretical consideration of both arts as well as through practical work, which was reflected in mutual influences.Increasingly, visual artists and composers incorporated other art into their work, formed project-related working groups or created multimedia works together. Several works of painting found their way into the music: Hun Battle (Liszt), pictures of anexhibition, The Island of theDead.This image by Arnold Böcklininspired Max Reger, Sergei Vasilyevich Rachmaninov and other composers to write symphonic poems. This contrasts with composer portraits and countless genre images of musicians, which also serve as research material for iconography.
Parallel developments are not always observed.Only parts of the style history found a counterpart in the opposite side. Art-historical concepts such as symbolism, impressionism or Art Nouveau are neither clearly distinguishable from each other nor easily transferable to music.For example, if a comparison is made between Claude Monet’s pictorial figures and Claude Debussy’s “impressionist” music and is explained by the dispersing of the shape or representation of the atmosphere, this is stated in the Contradiction to Debussy’s aesthetic.Likewise, parallel phenomena such as the New Objectivity cannot be explained in one-dimensional way, but only from their respective tendencies; while in art and literature it was a demarcation from Expressionism, in music he turned against Romanticism.
The ancient art relationship clearly separated the metaphysical demands of music and visual arts.The dual form of art, on the one hand, and the intellectual preoccupation with it on the other – was valued as an ethical and educational asset.Painting, however, was considered bad and only a bad one, as Plato’s Politeia points out, since it is only an imitation art.The difference, which is by no means aesthetically understandable, was based on the Pythagorean doctrine, which understood music as a reflection of cosmic harmony in the form of interval proportions.Thus painting logically found no place in the Artes liberal.
This view persisted into late antiquity.The Byzantine image dispute represented the most violent political-religious rejection of art, which, however, did not touch the music: it found its way into the Christian cult and into the Christian cult as an overformed symbol of the divine world order in measure and number. Liturgy.The Middle Ages recorded this separation and added the visual arts to the canon of art mechanicae.
Leonardo’s Vitruvian man redefined the proportion of the arts.It was no longer music, but painting, that was the guiding art of the Renaissance; no longer the cosmic, but the body proportions were the reference system.The upgrading of painting to fine art began in the Renaissance with a reference to the creative performance of the visual artists. Although it was still placed under the music that in Leon Battista Alberti’s art theory model becomes a model for architecture, it was already above poetry.Leonardo da Vinciundertook a first study of painting, for which she surpassed the music, since her works can be experienced sensually permanently, while music fades away.This process began against the background of secular humanism,which did not enshrine either a state-philosophical or a religious significance to art.
The age of the Enlightenment finally put man at the centre of the situation as the subject of contemplation and feeling.From this positioning of autonomous art in relation to science developed the understanding of art, which predominates to the present day. The arts subsequently developed their own aesthetic theories.
Since Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten’s Aesthetica (1750/58), art itself has come close to philosophy and philosophy.is regarded as a philosophical discipline of its own. Thus, music lost its special position within the arts and was incorporated into the fine arts, which redefined its ranking by its own aesthetics. Immanuel Kants Criticism of judgment (1790) she also assigned it to the pleasant arts, i.e. she is now superior to painting as a beautiful art, but subordinated to it as pleasant art, because it means more enjoyment than culture.
“The educated musician will be able to study a Raphaelian Madonna with the same benefit as the painter on a Mozartian symphony.
Even more: every actor becomes a quiet statue to the sculptor, to him the works of those to living figures; for the painter, the poem becomes an image, the musician turns the paintings into tones.”
The symbolistic and impressionistic painting, music and literature and the beginning of abstraction changed the relationship through increasing the artist’s reflection on the neighbouring arts, which also included aspects of one’s own work.Paul Gauguincoined a romantic understanding of music:
“Think also of the musical part that will take on the role of color in modern painting in the future.
Colour is just as vibration as music is capable of achieving what is most common and yet least clear in nature: its inner power.”
Henri Matisse described his creative process as musical.With the book About the Spiritual in Art (1912), Wassily Kandinsky redeemed Goethe’s critique, in which painting was lacking “(…) the knowledge of the General Bass (…) [and on a set, approved theory, as is the case in music”.
He interpreted it as a prophetic expression that heralded a kinship of the arts, especially music and painting.This is meant as a reference to the cosmological principle, as it appeared to the Pythagoreans to the metaphysical justification of music, and at the same time as its extension to the visual arts. In his Bauhauslectures, Paul Klee agreed that he used musical terminology to explain the visual arts.Later he designed an art poetry based on questions of music theory.
The relationship between music and visual arts after 1945 grew out of aesthetic approaches to theory.The focus was on a systematic classification of the two arts. From his point of view, Theodor W. Adorno necessarily separated them into music as contemporary art and painting as space art.He saw border crossings as a negative tendency.
“As soon as one art imitates the other, it distances itself from it by denying the compulsion of its own material, and degenerates into syncretism in the vague notion of an undialectical continuum of arts in general.”
– Theodor W. Adorno: About Some Relationships Between Music and Painting
He acknowledged that the arts are sign systems and are of the same content, the mediation of which they allow art to be.However, he considered the differences to be more important than the similarities. For Nelson Goodman, the problems of art differentiation turned out to be epistemological,so that he wanted to place a symbol theoryinstead of an aesthetic theory in general.As the boundary of the aesthetic to the non-aesthetic, he considered the difference between exemplification and denotation:while the visual arts are autographical, since their works are after the creative process (in which also original and The two-phase music is allographic, because its notated works require only a performance – although this distinction extends only to art.
Musicality encompasses a multi-graded field of characteristics of interdependent abilities and learning abilities.It is not to be understood as an absolute measure, as it can appear in many different active and passive forms. There are numerous test models for the measurement of musicality, including the Seashore test in the context of entrance examinations.Basically, musicality is universal to every human being.
Music-related perception includes recognizing and differentiating pitches, pitches, and volume levels.Absolute hearing is of particular importance in the performance of long-term memory. These skills also include grasping and retaining melodies, rhythms, chords or timbres.With increasing experience in dealing with music, the ability to classify music stylistically and evaluate it aesthetically develops.Practical musicality includes the productive skills of mastering the voice or a musical instrument technically and using them to artistically design musical works.
A musical predisposition is the prerequisite for musicality to develop to a corresponding degree.However, it is not the cause, so that the full expression of musicality can only be developed by intensive support – for example at music grammar schools or through the promotion of talented people.
With the increasing complexity of its manifestations, music emerges as an art form that develops its own vision and aesthetics.In the course of history – in Europe, for example, since the late Middle Ages on the border of the Renaissance – the individual composer’s work comes to the fore, which is now in the writing of music history in its temporal and social position.Since then, the musical work of art has been regarded as the expression of its creator, who thus refers to the musical tradition. His intentions record notation,sometimes additional comments, which serve as hints for interpretation.This may follow the intention of the composer, but it does not have to; it can contribute its own ideas as well as ignore the intention and function of the work – this is done, for example, in the use of symphonic works as ballet musicor in the performance of film music in concert Frame.
Music does not always claim to be art.Thus, folk music of all ethnic groups in history hardly carries in itself the unique and unmistakable that actually constitutes a work of art; moreover, it has no defined forms, but only forms of models and changes the melodies over time by means of oral tradition, re-singing or singing, similar to the children’ssong.Even in improvisation there is no fixed form, it is unique, never exactly repeated and can hardly be recorded in writing.Nevertheless, in jazz and solo cadency it is part of musical works, in which aleatorics are the result of an “open” design intention, in the Indian models Raga and Tala as well as in the Maqamat of the classical Arabic music is an art music determined by strict rules, which is not defined in its entire temporal extent and internal structure, but is the responsibility of the musician and his intuition or virtuosity.In the 21st century, the term spontaneous composition is increasingly used for improvisational forms.
Listening and understanding music is a multi-stage aesthetic–semiotic process.The listener absorbs the physical stimuli and adjusts the relationships of their individual qualities such as pitch, duration, etc. to recognize motifs and themes as smaller, period and proposition as larger orders and finally to grasp forms and genres.In addition, the meaning and meaning of music are revealed from its characterstructure, which has language-like features without music being a language.This is an insightfulorcognitive Understanding requires, on the one hand, the prior knowledge of the listener, who must have already dealt with the compositional, historical and social conditions of the work, on the other hand, it depends on the intentional attitude towards the musical factory. In addition, hearing is a sensual experience that makes a subjective and emotionalturn to music, and thus an active process overall.
Studies show that music can promote empathy as well as social and cultural understanding among listeners.
In addition, musical rituals in families and peer groups there increase social cohesion among the participants.
According to current findings, the ways in which music unfolds this effect also include the simultaneity (synchronicity) of the reaction to music as well as imitation effects.
Even young children develop more prosocial behavior towards people who move in sync with them.
See also: Music Psychology
Main article: Music Education
Music pedagogy is a scientific discipline closely linked to other pedagogical fields, covering the theoretical and practical aspects of education, education and socialisation in relation to music.On the one hand, it takes up the findings and methods of general pedagogy, youth research and developmental psychology as well as several musicological sub-areas, on the other hand the practice of making music and music exercise.Their goals are the musical acculturation and the reflective handling of music in the sense of an aestheticeducation.
The basic ideas of school music came from the youth music movement, whose strongest patron Fritz Jöde especially propagated the common singing of folk songs and put practical music making before the music viewing.This met with criticism after 1950, among others, from Theodor W. Adorno, who did not take sufficient account of the social conditionality of the work of art and its critical function.
“The purpose of musical pedagogy is to increase the abilities of students in such a way that they learn to understand the language of music and important works; that they can present such works as far as is necessary for understanding; to make them distinguish qualities and levels and, by virtue of the accuracy of the sensual view, to perceive the spiritual, which constitutes the content of each work of art.
It is only through this process, through the experience of the works, not through self-sufficient, as it were blind music making, that music pedagogy can fulfil its function.”
Theodor W. Adorno: Dissonances
The critique subsequently created an opening of music teaching to many directions, including the ideas of the Enlightenment in the writings of the educator Hartmut von Hentig.Ideas such as creativity and equal opportunities became just as important as critical perception education on emancipated behaviour in an acoustically increasingly overloaded environment.Popular music and music outside the European cultural circle have also played a role ever since.
Main article: Music Therapy
Music therapy uses music as part of a therapeutic relationship specifically to restore, maintain and promote mental, physical and mental health.It is closely related to medicine, socialsciences, pedagogy, psychology and musicology.The methods follow the different (psycho)therapeutic directions such as the deeppsychological, behavioraltherapeutic, systemic, anthroposophical and holistic-humanistic approaches.
The use of music for therapeutic purposes is historically subject to the changing notions of music as well as the respective notions of health, illness and healing.
Already among the natural peoples, the calamity-repellent and magical power of music was of great importance. It is mentioned in the Tanach in the healing of Saul by David’splay on the Kinnor (1 Sam 16,14 ff.
A distinction can be made between the assumption of magical-mythical, biological and psychological-culture-linked mechanisms of action.It should be borne in mind that methods are not readily applicable outside their respective cultural-historical contexts.
Today’s applications of music therapy are partly in the clinical field, such as psychiatry, psychosomatics, neurology, neonatology, oncology, addiction treatment and in the various areas of rehabilitation.Fields of work can also be found in non-clinical areas such as therapeutic pedagogy,in schools, music schools, in institutions of the elderly and disability support and early childhoodsupport. Music therapy takes place in all age groups.
Media capture the fleeting fading music, make it available to fellow and posterity and let music emerge first.They are the subject of historical research as well as value judgment as notes of a work of art. There is an interaction between media on the one hand, the process of performance and composition, and the musical perception on the other; the same applies to the technique used for production and reproduction, which in turn influences the playing technique of musical instruments. Since the beginning swell of printing, the production, marketing and distribution of music media have been the business goal of an entire industry that has operated globally as a music industry since the 20th century and offers an unmanageable offer.
Main article: Notation (music)
1640) in the composer’s manuscript. Through notation, a musical incursion of posterity is preserved and provides information about the creator and his idea.
The mensural notation regulated the timing of the individual voices among themselves.
If music is not transmitted orally, as is the case with folk music, it can be laid down in drawing systems that serve the visual representation and clarification of musical thoughts: notations.A notation bridges time and space, it can be stored and reproduced, reproduced and disseminated. In this way, it serves to provide insights into the creative process of a work and to understand its musical structures.At the same time, it creates one of the prerequisites for the composition and realization of the composition idea, since the musical thought is recorded in the notation.Depending on its encoding—letters, numbers, discrete or non-discrete graphic characters—a notation form is able to store information with varying degrees of accuracy.
One distinguishes results writings that make an existing connection available from the conceptual fonts, which record newly invented connections.The action fonts that prepare the music text for the playing technique of a particular musical instrument include, for example, tablatures for organor lute music.The notation used today still contains some elements of the action script. Notation can never fully capture a work in its parameters, so that there is always room for manoeuvre in execution and interpretation; the historical performance practice tries to design the execution as faithfully as possible in the sense of the composer and his aesthetic views on the basis of sources.
The first notations are known from ancient Egypt and ancient Greece.The Neumen used in the Byzantine and Gregorian chorale were able to record the melody movements of the unanimous Christian music.They began to develop around the 8th century. The early Neumen, however, still required knowledge of the melody and the rhythmic order, they were a pure result script.Around the year 1025 Guido von Arezzo introduced innovations that are still valid in modern notation: score lines in the third distance and the notation keys.
In the 13th century, multi-voiced music required a more precise fixation of the tone durations.The modal notation assigned fixed values for the duration of the individual notes, the mensural notation ordered the proportions of the tone durations among themselves against the background of the simultaneously emerging clock system.This allowed tone durations to be accurately displayed. The voices were recorded individually, recorded separately in a choral book after the completion of a composition and in turn written off as individual voices for execution.
The standard notation, which is now used internationally, has been established since the 17th century.Especially the precise recording of the durations has since been extended. Initially, the basic time measure was determined with tempo designations and clock specifications, after the invention of the metronome by Johann Nepomuk Mälzel in 1816 it was mechanically reproducible by an exact indication of the clock beats per minute.In addition, composers, modelled on Béla Bartok, specify the duration of performances of individual sections in minutes and seconds. New types since the 20th century were the graphic notation and recording forms for the production of electronicmusic.
In the 19th century, music notes could be produced in high circulation as well as in good quality and became the main source of income for the now freelance composers.
Soon after Johannes Gutenberg’s invention of letterpress with movable letters around the year 1450, note printingalso began.Already for 1457 the first printed music work can be proven, even before 1500 Ottaviano dei Petrucci developed the printing technique with movable sheet music types.Important printers and publishers such as Pierre Attaingnant and Jacques Moderne published the chansons, motets and dance pieces of their time for the first time in collective editions – thus satisfying the demand of the Audiences after secular music for entertainment and at the same time took an economic advantage from the sale of high volumes.This also set in the tone for the increased distribution of music pieces across the country.
Technical processes such as gravure printing in the 16th century, sheet music engraving and lithography in the 18th century significantly improved the quality of sheet music printing and allowed both extensive and graphically complicated sheet music texts to be reproduced.Photo set, offset printingand finally computer-controlled sheet music programs further expanded these possibilities.
The silent film of the same name with Harry Liedtke and Marlene Dietrich and the hits by Fritz Rotter (text) and Ralph Erwin (music) mutually increased their popularity: the media complemented each other in the Marketing strategy.
Sound recording began in 1877 with Thomas Alva Edison’s phonographs.Until the 1930s, this apparatus supported music ethnology:only Béla Bartik and Zoltn Kodily recorded thousands of folk songs in field research in Eastern Europe and North Africa.In 1887 Emil Berliner developed the first record and the corresponding gramophone.With this device, which was soon mass-produced and popularized the shellac plate as a storage medium, the music of all genres also entered those households that did not operate house music and arrangements or excerpts for used the piano playing.
Several technical steps improved the record.In 1948, polyvinyl chloride became a manufacturing material that allowed plates with narrower grooves, significantly extended their playing time and significantly increased the sound quality, as the playing speed increased from 78 to 33 and 33 respectively.45 revolutions per minute. The long-developed stereophony led to the stereo record in 1958. and in the 1960s to two-channel broadcasting.This required a new generation of playback devices, stereos were sold in large numbers.High Fidelitybecame the standard of sound fidelity.The direct editing method, in which the recording was not recorded on a tape as before, increased the quality of the music reproduction once again.In addition, a new professional group was established: the DJ.In addition, tapes were also popular in the private sector, especially in the form of compact cassettes for playing and recording in the cassette recorder and for mobile use in the Walkman.
Another step towards digitization, which was in common with the general distribution of computers, was the development of audio formats such as MP3, which allows platform-and device-independent use and can be used in the Internet in the form of downloadable music files takes a further distribution route.
In combination with audiovisual media, music is synergistic.Their connection with forms of expression such as acting or dance has existed since ancient times in a ritual context.The opera emerged from the connection with the drama.The connection with television creates on the one hand public for and interest in musical content, on the other hand it creates new genres such as the TV opera.In the film, the music takes on a variety of tasks, both dramaturgical and supportive, compared to the pictorial statement.It intensifies the perception of action, implements the intentions of the film director and contributes to a sensual overall impression on the viewer.From a technical point of view, it must be exactly synchronized with the optical information of the film. The same applies to the use in advertising. Another genre is the music video.Unlike in film music, it is the director’s task here to visualize an already existing piece of music dramaturgically. In a mix with other media, a music video usually serves the sale of the corresponding music, although audiovisual art can also be created here.
Music was already a relevant topic in the mailbox networks and in the Usenet during the 1980s.Audio data compression and streaming media as well as higher data transfer rateseventually made them an integral part of networkculture.Due to its decentralized organisation, the Internet not only serves information and communication, but also continuously creates new content, some of which disappear after a short period of time.
Streaming media include Internet radio stationsthat either transmit the terrestrial radio station program of traditional radio stations on the Internet or offer their own program, which is only available over the Internet.Music programs are also broadcast through podcasting.Another use is to provide downloadable files for music promotion.Artists, labels and distributors offer free, partly paid downloads, which may also be restricted in their type and frequency of use by digital administration or subject to copy protection.Individual artists also offer works exclusively on the Internet, so that a distribution of the “material” recordings is no longer necessary. Also available are free bonus tracks or material that does not appear on phonograms.
Information and communication on music-related topics are provided by private homepages, fan pages, blogs and reference works in lexical form.Web portals play an important role in the music offering.While some portals list an offer of hyperlinks, others serve to market music in cooperation with the music industry.In addition, there are platforms that provide musicians with storage space and a content management system to upload and offer their self-produced music for a low fee or free of charge online. They serve both the self-marketing of the artists as well as the online cooperation and the formation of social networks through communitybuilding.
File sharingprograms that access the Internet exchange music files between Internet users in a peer-to-peernetwork.If these are not private copies of copyrighted material, this constitutes a criminal copyright infringement committed by the music industry or the music industry.individual artists have already led to lawsuits against exchanges and their customers, as the sale would be restricted by the free downloads via P2P programs.
The concept of the work plays a central role in the view of art; Historical musicology sees it as a fundamental cultural model for the assessment of individual manifestations of music, which is also influenced by the contemporary media.The concept of work is based primarily on the written fixation of music in the music text, written or printed.
Since humanism, the “work”, in which music is also referred to as opus, means the self-contained, time-long individual creation of its author.Although there were musical works that correspondto this definition already existed in the late Middle Ages, the term and its meaning for musical aesthetics only developed and spread in the early modern period.In the preface of his Liber de arte contrapuncti (1477), Johannes Tinctoris mentions the works of the great composers as the subject.
“Quorum omnium omnia fere opera tantam suavitudinem redolent, ut, mea quidem sententia, non modo hominibus heroibusque verum etiam Diis immortalibus dignissima censenda sint.”
“Almost all the works of all these [composers) smell so sweet that, in my opinion, they are worthy not only of humans and demigods, but indeed of the immortal gods.”
John Tinctoris: Liber de arte contrapuncti
The Rudimenta Musicae of Nikolaus Listenius, written in 1533, is the result of the idea of the “opus perfectum et absolutum” (“completed and self-contained work”) that survives the lifetime of its creator (although here it is was not yet limited to compositions).The concept of work, which emphasizes the originality and aesthetic content of music, began to solidify with the 19th century. In modern times, the conception of the work changed fundamentally.Through open forms and variable structures of aleatorics, through graphic notation forms and the idea of work in progress, which no longer applied anything to the work, but only as a stage in the solution of compositional problems the conventional concept of work is called into question.
The difference is due to the contrast between Energeia (Greek: “acting force”) and Ergon (Greek: “acting force”) and Ergon (Greek: “acting force”).”Work”). Music can be experienced as energeia in what moves them in men and in them; it can be experienced at the same time as Ergon, in which people encounter music outside of themselves. This explains why, on the one hand, elementary and trivial musical phenomena can also be poignant, on the other hand an artistically very complex lyric work cannot necessarily do so. Music and work are not the same, the concept of work already implies an aesthetic evaluation. It is essentially an imprint of the 19th century view of art, which does not apply to all art music. Since the music of the Second Viennese School, in serial music, in jazz and music in Happening and Fluxus, this difference has come to light.Most of the music is music, is not written and is integrated into social contexts.It does not have the object character of the work of art, but legitimizes itself by its effect.
Thus, the thinking of past centuries was determined more by the idea of sounding music than energeia.Adams of Fulda De Musica (1490) the fleetingfading music calls the “true philosophy of death”.Immanuel Kant only approves of a transitory character in the critique of judgment (1790), it extinguishes completely or, if repeated by the imagination, it is more annoying than pleasant.
Aristotelic philosophy regarded art with the concept of work, but sounding music only as a practical execution of its form of ideas.You have no higher rank than sleeping or eating.
The work is created by writing and is connected with the person of its Creator.It is unique, has a beginning and an end, is self-contained and therefore immutable. It retains its identity even if it is presented differently in different interpretations. Thus, unlike improvisation or the writingless music in which composition and interpretation coincide, it has a double existence in these two components.At the same time, it becomes not only capable of tradition, but also of history. The characteristic of the work of art as new and unique allows a comparison between works in aspects such as epochs, generations or individual creators. This is both a prerequisite and a drive for the renewal and connection point for new plants. The comparability of works make value judgments,analysis and interpretation possible and necessary.
Main article: Music industry
Since 1945, the music industry has developed into a highly integrated, globally organized business under the leadership of a few companies from the Western industrializedcountries.These dominate the consumer electronicsand mass mediasector.The leading nations of the phonogram market – mostly the sale of compact discs – are the UnitedStates, Japan and Germany.
In addition to the so-called major labels, which essentially dominate the market and are controlled by concentration andCentralization form a supply oligopoly, a large number of independent labels work close to the base on niche markets.Nevertheless, there are also economic links between majors and independents in the field of artist and repertoire support as well as in the distribution structures.For companies that stand between the two categories, the term “major indies” has become established.
The British punk band The Clashgained a large media attention in 1991 with the song Should I stay or should I go, released nine years earlier, when a commercialby the clothing manufacturer Levi’s again Popularized.
This presupposed the acquisition of licensing rights.
Phonograms are the main product and thus the largest source of income for the music industry.Broadcasting media Broadcasting and Television distribute the products of phonogram producers in their programmes.On the one hand, the music industry is dependent on the media, which on the other hand depend on the offer of the industry and generate revenue through its use: to such an extent copyright and related rights for authors and artists, the media pay fees for use.The collecting societies monitor this use.You specify the amount of compensation that flows back to the authors and performers.Music television stationsare of considerable importance for popular music, which act as a marketing tool for music videos for the purpose of promotion.
In individual cases, the profits from the use of license rights may exceed the ticket sales.These arise from the trade in fan articles such as T-shirts, posters, postcards or stickers.
Equally important are print media.Until the mass production of the record, the core business rested on the musicpublishers, who mainly produced musicand distributed musical material, but today above all perceive the copyright claims against the media.Their work is also in the trade in intellectual propertyrights, which must be observed in the reproduction, marketing and exploitation of phonograms.The importance of licensing and merchandising gained in importance especially in the 1980s, when hundreds of thousands of individual works of pop music were sold and resold by several hundred million people. U.S. dollars in revenue.In addition to the media, the licensees are the advertising industry and the consumer goodsindustry.The large corporations of the phonogram industry maintain their own companies for this purpose.In addition to the recording producers, the music industry includes music production companies and recording studios, tour operators and artistagencies, wholesale and retail companies as well as Music magazines.
Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) was known only regionally during his lifetime, his musical work received less attention than his instrumental playing or his technical knowledge in the field of orgelbal.
After his death, it took several decades to rediscover his works and to revisit his CV historically. Today, his compositions and the aesthetic stakes that underlie them are the subject of countless scientific print media, his music is the subject of regular performances and ever-new recordings worldwide among amateurs as well as professional musicians. equally well-known. Painting by Elias Gottlob Haußmann (1746)
In the age of mass media, music production is basically still possible as a work-sharing process.Whereas in the past the separation of composers and performers prevailed, electronic means of production and the use of computers also provide a complete production by a single person. The division of labour is based on the transmission of music in the form of notes, MIDIdata, etc., so that composers and performers can trade in specialised activities.
While the production of “classical music” focuses primarily on recordings that are true to the factory and as artistically as high-quality as possible, the production-technical means in the genres of entertainment music become considerably more consistent and goal-oriented. Used.The use of the means as effects for their own sake can also be observed.What is desired is a hearing eventthat is as unique as possible.
Whereas in the field of entertainment and especially film music the activity of the arranger for sound in the past still played an important role, with the increasing digitization and the use of samplingtechnology, rather the Sound design in the foreground.
The musical instrument makingindustry has close links to composition and production.For example, the history of piano music can only be understood in the context of the technical development of the instrument in the 19th century; Music was and is composed specifically for instruments, with technical improvements of the piano – hammerand pedal mechanics, sound volume – being exploited by the composers.The sound improvements of the stringinstruments, the intonation reliability and the extension of the range of sound of wood and brass instruments were also reflected in the composition practice, which placed higher demands on the instrumentalists.
The combination of sounding music and technology takes place in the work of the sound engineer orsound engineer or sound engineer.Finally, the music producer is responsible for the overall commercial, organisational and artistic management.
The music industry operates in the context of cultural processes.Although it tends to have monopolistic structures, its practices are not exclusively business-oriented, as it must take into account the creative process of making music in order to create a product. to produce.Their economic power does not correspond at the same time to a cultural power that would be able to control the aesthetic values of the consuming society. Since the mid-1950s, the ratio of economic success within the products offered has not changed in inter-company terms, despite increasing concert links. Approximately 10% of the annual productions are economically successful, with 3% profit and 7% only covering the costs; the remaining 90% of publications cause losses. The judgment, which is common in the cultural-scientific discourse, that the music industry is pursuing a commercialization, is contradicted by the opinion that its main interest lies less in the form of the work than in the economic exploitation of the work. of its rights.
In contrast to the practice of traditional music culture, the musical product is uniquely based on the medium of a work performed once for its exploitation.This work is usually composedonce, interpretedonce, recorded and disseminated on the record.It is selected from the existing repertoire oroften written, recorded, produced, marketed and distributed in the retail trade.
After that, the social reception process begins.Neither the production nor the reception of phonograms can therefore be compared structurally with the traditional cultural processes. But unlike in public music life, which offers existing musical works to the public by the institutions looking for a suitable repertoire, the music industry goes the opposite way. She tries to build up a reception as controlled as possible for the piece of music present on a recording. The decisive moment lies in the demand of the product, which determines the decisions of the sales policy.These are designed differently in the different sectors (pop, classical, jazz, etc.).
Music takes place in society.It stands with it in constant and interdependent dependence and influence: it is influenced in its production, in the composition and performance of social factors, influences the people again at the reception and thus the Society.Music depends on the social roles of the people who invent, sing and play, hear, spread, collect, buy, prefer or reject it; it is also dependent on the institutionsthat arise from music, on the other hand.Through ethical, aesthetic or other value judgments, she forms norms in relation to the behaviour towards her.It is able to constitute and change social groups.
Since the High Middle Ages, musical life has changed many times in social as well as technical terms.The cornerstones of this development are the transition from feudalism to the estatessociety, the rise of thebourgeoisie, finally the emergence of masssociety.In this change, not only the music, but also what was considered as music, and ultimately also its essence and function changed. The introduction of media represents the state of the technical equipment of the society, which produces, distributes and perceives music. These are essentially five steps: font, letterpress, soundrecording, electronic and digitalmedia.They are each the communicationchannels, regardless of the content and their social conditions.It is only together with the codes that they develop productive forces.
There is a dialectical relationship between codes and media.If the codes of certain materials, such as paper or electrical energy, are used, they form them into information that can be used. At the same time, however, the codes have to adapt to the medium. Codes are thus just as decisive as the media responsible for how art develops. This development is the result of social choices – economic, political, legal, ideological, and aesthetic – for the use of media and codes.
Adolph Menzels Painting Flute Concerto of Frederick the Great in Sanssouci (1852) depicts the scene in which the King of Prussia played bach together with his teacher Johann Joachim Quantz and the composer Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach.
Although the standing Friedrich “set the tone”, the ensemble playing meant a social appreciation of the musicians around him.
Pierre-Auguste Renoirs Portrait of the Daughters of Catulle-Mendés at the piano (1888) shows the bourgeois household of the 19th century.
The foundations for European music culture have existed since the late MiddleAges.The process of change continued until the technical development of sheet music printing and took advantage of the unfolding notation possibilities up to mensural notation.These means significantly improved the production and distribution of music and allowed practical control; the emerging contrapuntable regulation of music, the qualification of sounds in a system of consonances and dissonances, and the vocal guidance in the developing polyphonycould be more easily determine and check uniform graphic order.The general consequences of differentiation were the distribution of roles in the areas ofcomposition, interpretation and distribution.
The composer, as the autonomous creator of the musical work of art, emerged as an individual from medieval anonymization, while the increasingly complex musical structure of a technically appropriate interpretation by the musician needed.The demand for music existed at the church and the princely courts and encouraged the creation of new works.The bourgeoisie, as a politically and economically determining stratum, agreed. Whereas in the Middle Ages, e.g. with minstrels and trobadors, composers were always also performers of their own works and performed in a certain function, a work-sharing market with differentiated Professional profiles: composer, singer, instrumentalist, publisher and dealer.
At first, composers and performers remained bound to the patronage of the church and courts, which demanded music, but also promoted music and led to patronage.The composer rose from a service provider to the prestige bearer of the prince, who was often connected to him through private music lessons.The church offered employment to numerous musicians and accepted their guild organization in the cities.In bourgeois society and in the beginning of capitalism, the composer finally becomes a subject on the free market.He offers his works, which he creates without a client, to an anonymous audience of music lovers. Publishers and retailers take the form of mediating bodies, which form the basis of a new industry. On the other hand, this emergence of abstract market conditions also promoted “artistship”, i.e. the social role of the composer as a person no longer integrated into society, who is becoming more and more an outsider.
The parallel development in the field of entertainment music, on the other hand, did not take place until the late 18th century.Until then, folk and entertainment musicians were socially ill-placed urban gamers or specialists within the villagesociety.There was still no division of work here, only oral tradition of music and a less differentiated function of making music: folk musicians were involved in the everyday life and the processes of the church year, but also took on the role of the information transmitter, for example through the Moritaten– and Bänkelsang.With industrialization came the demand for “professional” music in entertainment music.
The specifically bourgeois salon music was also created in the 19th century.It consisted largely of light arrangements of art music for affluent households.Especially for the piano and small house music ensembles, easy-to-play and effective pieces were produced.They served as musical material for music lessons. Carl Czernys School of commonity and other practice music formed the equipment for the bourgeois music teacher, who appeared as a new profession.
Especially in the German Empire, singing clubsemerged as an innovation also male choirs.A printed and nationally widespread repertoire of choral works created social identity, the singers’ festivals of the German Singers’ Association became an expression of the national cultural identity formation.Easier travel options, railways and steam shipping, also favoured these mass events. The virtuosity in the concert hall revived the music market and created the first internationally known stars such as Franz Liszt and NiccoLé Paganini.The copyright law, which until the end of the 19th century regulated the expanding publishing and concert life of the European countries, strengthened the composers.Their income ratios improved sustainably and they got control of their works and the compensation for their use for the first time. Thus the profession of composer was also legally recognized and the focus of the creative production was now finally in the hands of the artists themselves.
Civic art culture and entertainment music were completely separate.
It is supported by the Bayreuth Richard Wagner Foundation, which draws from public and private hands to hold the annual Opera Festival.
The invention of sheet music helped to spread music faster and more widely, but the circulations were still quite low until the end of the 18th century.The printing of music was rather a means of documenting and medianing the music text to the performers. A broad shopper did not yet find notes. However, freely available notes support the emerging public music culture, especially in the Italian opera system around the middle of the 17th century and in English concert since the early 18th century.The bourgeois musical life began to develop socially and economically under their influence. Initially, inns and public halls were used as venues for performances, later the first concert halls were built as specialized venues for concert music – with the participation of the municipal administration.
The invention of lithography in 1796 led directly to better quality printing results and larger editions in sheet music printing.Notes proved profitable and a broad market grew. This also brought the commodity character of music to the fore.In the middle of the 19th century, the performances of music by composers who had already died exceeded those of still-living composers for the first time. This is also a sign of the emergence of a specifically bourgeois canon and the underlying aesthetic.
The piano played a special role in the domestic area. The most important features of European art music – polyphony, counterpoint, modulation harmonics, well-tempered mood of the chromatic sound system – can be sounded pleasant, technically simple and learn and reproduce at relatively inexpensive lycost.Both piano and music printing became bearers of music culture in the bourgeois class. Symptomatic is the prayer of a Virgincomposed in 1856 by Tekla Bédarzewska .It belongs to an industrially produced, standardized music, which was later considered the epitome of musical kitsch.
Even more obvious was the market development in popular music.Already towards the end of the 18th century, the large entertainment venues for the middleand underclass began to operate in the big cities: Music Halls in England, cafés in France, in Germany revuetheatres and ballrooms, in the USA the Minstrel Shows and from France taken over Vaudevilles.The music played there was used for dancing and singing along, but not for enjoying art.
The bourgeois music culture had largely adopted the contents of its ecclesiastical and aristocratic precursors.But it differed in its ideological connection. While for the princes music was a pleasant distraction and the church functionalized it religiously, the bourgeoisie sought education and edification in it and used it for representation.The citizen now acted as patron, and increasingly also the public purse. States, municipalities and private associations financed the construction and maintenance of opera and concert halls. Their goal was a public musical life that could be able to educate the bourgeoisie itself.
This is where cultural policybegan.What was considered to be culturally valuable in the service of the general public was also given support, apart from economic considerations. The value judgments were made by an increasingly closed subculture – universities, intellectuals, artists and critics – with a tendency towards self-referentiality,so that the social disintegration of art was further advanced.The forms of bourgeois-value-oriented culture eventually also took over the aristocratic rulers. As a counterweight to the bourgeois sphere grew the entertainment industry, which maintained tabloid theatre and created the professional entertainer as a new profession.
These developments had consequences for the art reception.Until the beginning of modern times, music was either functional, e.g. connected with work or worship, or had been donated as a dance and folk music community, so the handling and use of music was the conventional approach, so changed this to the performance of music.It was taken up as a work of art and for its own sake. She no longer had to share interest with other everyday things like work or sleep, but was heard with great attention. This structural mode of listening, which the musical work of art seeks to understand in its form and content, presupposes already theoretical prior knowledge. This was in hand with the distinction between art music and “non-“art music, i.e. the transfer of value judgments to musical genres. Discernment has been stylized as an important social feature; whodidly did not follow up the bourgeois canon was considered uneducated. The entertainment music is different: neither was it perceived as art nor was it heard in a concentrated way. They were also heard while they were busy talking, eating, dancing, consuming a service.
The transistor radio NordmendeTransita from the 1960s was regarded as an exemplary product design.
It was affordable, portable and became a status symbolfor many young people.
By controlling all processes from composition to play and staging to the marketing of his works, he criticized radically.
At the end of the 19th century, a transformation of Western society began, which accompanied the invention of sound recording.It emerged massmedia, such as gramophone and shellacplate, radio and soundfilm.With the invention of the condenser microphone, the electronic media began to use.Until the Second World War, music was mainly mediated, through radio and music film.
After the Second World War, the growing prosperity of broader social classes began to form a consumer society.Demand for electrical accessories such as tape recorders or transistor radios increased, and television began to spread.With the electric industrialization, an industrial production of music developed for the first time in the true sense of the word. All processes were now work-sharing, as had been the case in the field of entertainment before.
The bourgeois understanding of music in relation to art had not changed significantly since the 19th century.The music industry overformed it. It largely took over the economization of the last century, and the music workers became workers in a concentrating industry dominated by record producers and broadcasters.These two now decided which music was heard and received.
Gradually, the expectations of the audience changed. The wider media availability of the offer, which could no longer be seen in individual sectors of the “classic” recording market, led to an unconcentrated and accelerated reception.This affected entertainment music, jazz, pop, rock with their numerous independent currents such as punk, metal, techno, hip-hop, country, blues, etc., the in the tension between further standardization on the one hand, increasing pressure for innovation on the other.
The musical preference for individual musical directions depends on many factors such as age, gender and socialization.
Musical socialization means the formation of values, norms and rules in relation to music and the formation of musical competence.