[“In The early twentieth century, entrepreneurs from different cities developed initiatives to improve the transport of goods. These were all from A to B initiatives. I believe that this was mainly about small-scale transport and representatives of small and medium-sized enterprises who used the car as the main means of transport and were in a public way to share with all sorts of slow traffic, especially horse and wagon. It was mainly about the fact that the new roads were exclusive domain for car traffic, which could, of course, move much faster. This would benefit trade and small and medium-sized enterprises.
Because car traffic was still in its infancy and both freight and people could be moved by train sufficiently quickly and efficiently, those initiatives were often on the shelf for lack of resources.The main reason was that cars were for the elite; The ‘ ordinary man ‘ had nothing to do with that. Highways were seen as elite projects for the happy few.
That changed when the automobile industry blossomed in several countries, with the focus becoming more and more on cars for everyone: in America with the T-Ford, in Germany with the Beetle, in Italy with the Topolino and in France with the duck.This brought car mobility to the masses and made it necessary that the road structure would be adapted.
The first real motorway is built between Milan and Varese, i.e., a road exclusively for car traffic, but with ground-level crossings and without central bermbarriere.Yet this road was a model for further development into a full-fledged motorway. It was developed especially in Nazi Germany. The National Socialists, embraced the phenomenon and led by Fritz Todt, the model was systematically optimised, in which the planning also took into account the fact that straight roads are slacking attention while occasionally a bend Keeps the driver awake. They also developed standard exits, junction points (Clover Blades), filling stations and viaducts that could also withstand the test of Nazi architecture. The consistent carrying of the model is one of the strengths of the German system. The road always consisted of concrete slabs, fitted with a black continuous instead of a white dashed stripe. Flight strips were missing.
Interestingly, one could only think in two lanes per direction of travel.When calculations showed that two lanes were too little for the expected traffic, the system turned on tilt and one did not get out. Three lanes was ‘ impossible. ‘
As the first project the initiative to connect Hamburg via Frankfurt with Basel, was taken up.Then a whole network followed, which to this day forms the backbone of the German road network. The ‘ Volkswagen ‘ was developed simultaneously with the motorway construction. The ‘ new citizen ‘ could cross the German salvation State over the ‘ Autobahnen ‘, enjoying the most beautiful vistas along the way. In Some cases highways were planned so that they did not have the shortest route, but the route with the most beautiful view followed.
Germany was therefore the first country to use the motorways as a nationalistic binder and propaganda tool to unite the country, in which the different identities of the different German states, as had existed until 1870, were subordinate Had to be made to an allesorefreshing German ‘ soul, ‘ with one joint enemy: the Jews.
After the war, the US especially improved the concept, especially with better, clearer signage.
Nowadays fewer innovations take place.Initiatives to make certain cars run automatically and faster over longer distances have not come to fruition. Nor are there any solutions in sight to solve the file problem. You could see the traffic jams as a way in which the motorway is going to its own success. The endless mobility need seems to be moving back to public transport, in the absence of space to make the motorways sufficiently wide or because the boundary of noise and air pollution has been reached. In fact, the cities want to limit car traffic in the city, for the same reasons and therefore to reduce parking possibilities or even to praise the entrance to the city. You’ll also see the latter happening more and more outside the city, with a number of examples as the ultimate example.
Electric and self-propelled cars may be part of the solution because they do not emit anything and are quieter.But roads will be equally wide, and the number of cars that need to rush will not be smaller.
The freight transport tests for longer distances electric overhead line above the right lane, approximately as at the railways (but then with two phases instead of one).This does not require heavy and expensive batteries. There are tests in the US, Sweden and Germany.
The main reason why the motorway has not evolved is because it has been specifically designed for the car and has achieved a certain optimum: a good balance between speed, capacity and safety.The car is technically not substantially altered, so the reason for adjusting the road was small. The motorway is in all its parts pretty well matched to its purpose. One might think that higher speeds are desirable, but this lowers the optimum. It would mean that the road should be wider and that the distance between the cars should be greater. That means fewer cars fit on the road and that lowers the capacity and increases the cost per car passed. That’s why we prefer to use the (high-speed) train or the airplane in the long haul.
“,” According to me, the concept of motorway is an invention of Nazi Germany (Autobahn).The concept has since been infinitely improved, only the growth of car use has gone so fast that improvements have not solved the file problem. Also we are people so stupid that we all want to be in the same place at the same time, e.g. the Zuidas van A-Dam.