Your question is incomplete, because about what market do we have it?
For example, if you are talking about Mobile Gaming, you can assume that the market leaders will be C++ (Unreal Engine, Cryengine) and C# (Unity).
We talk about Data Science, then you need to look at R and Python.
So it differs per market which will be the right answer.
My impression around programming languages is that there are two separate “wave movements”.
The first wave is the innovation wave.Something needs to be put down quickly which adds value. Programming languages that allow for a short ‘ feed-back loop ‘ have the greatest advantage here. Around the year 2000 this was for me and a colleague SPSS, with this we were able to provide the management of data analysis results in minutes.
The second wave is the standard wave.Once something is really stable and the big change disappeared, the short feed-back loop is less relevant.
The crafting becomes a package or library, it has become a standard.
And standard software demands very different requirements.
When we talk in Agile terms: The focus draws from “value creation” to “quality”, where quality means you can maintain the value creation for longer periods of time (the lifespan of the system).
If we put these two waves next to each other, we see that on the standard wave a number of languages have been dominating for years: C/C++/C # and Java.As a standard in (relational) database disclosure, SQL has been dominant for decades. Pascal has also sustained it for a while, but has now disappeared.
On the first wave we see more variation: Python, Visual Basic, R, Perl, Ruby (on Rails) and PHP.Pascal (Delphi) also fits well here. What we see here is that these languages make it possible to quickly add value (rapid application development) and to put a sufficiently stable product down.
Yet we see that some have not achieved it.Visual Basic is no longer as big as it was (much has moved to the Internet), Perl has been replaced by PHP and Python, PHP is also slowly being replaced by Python. Ruby (on Rails) had his moment and now appears to be replaced by Python.
R is a strange duck in the bite.I have just given my vision on the English Quora (Jos Buurman’s answer to What is the future of the R programming language?), in short: R is a niche language, in which the niche is currently being inflated by other factors, so people are not Realise that it is a niche language.
We also find some niche languages that have been going on for years, especially in the academic corner: LISP, Smalltalk, Matlab.I keep this aside.
Against this background, I would like to ask the question “which programming language will be market leader”.
On the desktop, C/C++/C # and Java will remain dominant.On the Internet, Python is now completely the thing, but cloud-native will disrupt this.
If speed is important, a small selection remains: the C-Languages and Java.Interpreted languages fall off. For embedded applications remains very little about, C-like languages, because it has to be converted to assembly.
There are some peripheral phenomena around mobile like Swift for the Apple domain.I see that Go can get stronger, and then it does.
What I am forsee is that the two waves persist.And there is currently no programming language on the second wave that can emit the C-languages and Java of the throne in the short term.
The first wave will have Python as its driving force for the time being, but this will disappear as cloud-native solutions mature.Companies are looking for “clickable” standard solutions, for most companies programming is not a core activity. The reason why many companies still search for programmers, especially on data science, is that there is value to be found. Once this value generation is possible in standard applications, where I expect cloud-native to be the preferred solution, the programmers will no longer be needed.
It is harder to estimate what will be the first wave development, but the second wave is clear: the same market leaders as now: C-Languages and Java.Go may come next, but the other two will not bump into the throne.