Where in the solar system can we find life?

With certainty

I.On earth [1[2 [footnotes refer to the sources for the pictures, with animals (and: I have marked English hyperlinks with “and”).


The International Space Station (ISS) [3


The Moon [4

How can there be life on the moon?

Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. [5(pictured) and eleven others have been there.This was in the past, but the last Apollo mission was relatively recent. In addition, it could well be that people will return to the moon. In early January 2019, thanks to China, there were also plants and animals on the Moon (en), but now no longer (and).


Space and space bodies contaminated with terrestrial microbes.

Possible -Ocean worlds

Ocean Worlds is the label given to objects in the solar system that host stable, globe-girdling bodies of liquid water -“oceans”.


See Lunine (2017) (en).Translated to Dutch: “Ocean Worlds is the label attributed to objects in the solar system that contain stable, world-wide liquid water bodies -oceans.”

I.Europe (the moon, not the continent!) [7[8


Enceladus [9


Titan [10[11


Other former and current ocean worlds, with varying degrees of certainty: see table 1 and its explanation of Lunine 2017 (en).Including Mars and Ceres.

Potential Ocean Worlds Ariel (a moon of Uranus) [12 and Triton (en) (a moon of Neptune); both very speculative.[13

Possible -Non-ocean worlds


Venus? Limaye et al. (2018) (and) speculate that the clouds of Venus may maintain microbial life.


Other Celestial Bodies or dwarf planets ?Maybe on 2007 OR10 (with ice [en)?[14


There are many places in the solar system where there might be some life.

Nothing has been discovered yet, but possible future missions will change.

For more about Europe, Enceladus and Titan, see Professor Lunine’s English lecture given at the Harvard Smithsonian Centre for Astrophysics (February 2016).


  1. There may be unknown planets (s) in the solar system (which have moons) to live.
  2. This answer makes the physicalistic assumption that there is no life without biochemical processes.


[1 What color is each planet?Intermediate

[2 NASA Satellite Camera Provides “EPIC” View of Earth

[3 Robert Frost’s post in Space Exploration

[4 Full Moon Over Newfoundland -Moon: NASA Science

[5 Apollo 11 Mission Image -Astronaut Edwin Aldrin -Moon: NASA Science

[6 sciencedirect

[7 Jupiter & Europe in True Color (NASA Cassini Jupiter Images)

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[14 Hubble Images of 2007 OR10

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