The Franks were not yet mentioned by the historian Tacitus, Who Did Mention istvaeones, as well as Plinius the elder.The earliest references to the Franks date from the middle of the third century and act on the establishment of Frankish groups northeast of the Rhine and the division into two subgroups, the Salian francs And The ripuarische francs .It is assumed that the Franks originally originated as a kind of covenant between various Germanic tribes, who lived in the valley of the Rhine (middle Loop and Lower Rhine) and the territories directly east of it.
After their invade in Roman territory (274 A.D.), the Franks managed to break the Roman power in a large part of the current Rhineland.
This group of Franks is also referred to as the Ripuarische Franks.The Romans, in the period 290-300 A.D. To relocate their power over the Rhine; However, the region was not re-animated. The Franks gradually took over the local dominant position over the inhabitants of the area of the Roman elite who, in part, moved to Gaul. In the middle of the fourth century, a partnership between the so-called Salian Franks and the Romans came into being, making these Salian franks available to the Area Of Toxandria, from there they knew after 406 N. Chr.Their power first gradually and around the year 500 very quickly expand over a large part of the current Southern Netherlands, Belgium and northern France. During the same period, the Ripuarian francs managed to establish their power in the Rhineland, the present-day Limburg (Dutch And Belgian), eastern Belgium, Luxembourg and parts of north-eastern France.Around 500 Clovis United both groups of francs In The Merovingian Empire.
The area of the Ripuarische Franks covered the entire middle and Lower Rhine area, the area east of the Meuse and the area along the Moselle.In The Low Countries, the Ripuarian francs ruled the area above the Lower Rhine (the Betuwe and Hamaland).
The establishment of Frankish tribes between circa 260 and 537 shows a gradual spread from the banks of the Rhine to the south and west.It is well known that the (Salische) Franken in 358 of the Roman general (and later Emperor) Julianus received the status of Foederati (‘ allies ‘) in Roman territory in the Scheldt valley, between the great rivers and in the depopulation Area of the Kempen.
There were previously vain Roman attempts to get the invaded Franks under (tax) control.The status of Foederati meant that the Franks had to vouch for the defence of that part of the Roman Empire, in exchange for the abolition of tax contributions.The Franks gave a broad interpretation to this Treaty (Feodus) and quickly controlled the area of The current Netherlands below The Rivers and northernBelgium, where they formed the new elite.They later established their power centre in Tournai.
It is not known what the driving forces were behind this migration, but it could have to do with the climate.The trek from the Franks to the southwest went parallel to the trek from the Saxons to England via the present Dutch coast around 440-450. Around 480 the Franks occupied an area almost entirely detached from their original territory, although around 537 there was some overlap with their original territory.
In the course of the fifth century A.D., the Roman authority collapsed in Western Europe .In the northern regions, including the area of the later Netherlands and Belgium, this partly meant a decline in civilization, even partly back to prehistorictimes: Most of the literate inhabitants of our regions pulled away to the South, almost nothing was put in writing.Therefore, most of the knowledge for a reconstruction of the history of that time is extracted from archaeological excavations. From the other side, the Franks built a strong kingdom between ca. 350 and 500, which took over many elements of Roman culture and governance.
Around 406, Franken fought as mercenaries of the USURPER Constantine III Against The rightful Emperor Honorius.Around 460, Emperor Majorianus And General Aegidius attempted to restore the Roman authority in the Dutch River region with the help of Frankish mercenaries.In 476, the Western Roman state apparatus finally collapsed.
Ten years after the drop-off of Romulus Augustulus as the last Roman Emperor in Western Europe, the Frankish King Clovis defeated in 486 The ‘ Roman general ‘ Syagrius (actually a local warlord) At Soissons, so that the north of Gaul fell into his hands.With Clovis began the great expansion of the Frankish Empire.
Expansion of the Frankish Empire (5th-9th century)
Expansion of the Frankish Empire from 481 to 870
From the 6th to the 8th century, the Franks under the Merovingian Kings gradually conquered the never-occupied Regions of Germania Magna east of the Rhine and north of the Danube (roughly the areas of the current Germany, the Czech Republic, Austria) and Switzerland).
Under the Carolingian dynasty , the Franks finally occupied the largest part of current Italy and the region of northern Spain Between the Ebro and the Pyrenees.This resulted in Europe as the most powerful state since the fall of the Western Roman Empire. The crowning of the Frankish expansion took place literally when Charlemagne was crowned Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire in the year 800 by the Pope .
The end of the Franks as separate people
In the former Roman regions , the Franks gradually assimilated into the Latin-speaking population that was moderately much larger than the small upper layer of Frankish rulers.Especially when the Franks converted to Christianity (Catholicism), this facilitated the assimilation process.Gradually, the new Franconian with the ancient Gallo-Roman topcoat melted through marriages between them.However, this process has lasted a long time. The Frankish kings continued to speak their Germanic language until after Charlemagne , and even afterwards there were evidence that the nobility from the vicinity of Paris sent their sons to the north because there was better Frankish spoken.Apart from the former Roman border, the merging of the already related West Germanic tribes was quite noiseless and after 900 the original strain distinction was only of little significance.
The Low Countries as heirs of the Franks
Some tombstones bear Frankish names, other romance.
In the northern regions of the Netherlands, for a long time the Frisians prevailed, especially along the coast.In contrast to Frisians and Saxony, the Franks went to Catholic Christianity early on.From the late 7th century , Utrecht formed a Frankish stronghold from which the Friesians and Saxons were also tried (and subject), a process that persisted throughout the 8th century . During the flowering of Arianism in the Roman Empire in the 4th century, the Arian Visigothic Wulfila began his Missionary Work under the Goths .He made a Bible translation into the Gothic.The Gothic Leader Fritigern was converted during the reign Of The Arian Emperor Valens.As a result, most Germanic tribes, who invaded the Roman Empire during the large folk removals , were Arian.This was the same for the Visigoths, The Ostrogoths, the Vandals, the Burgundi茫 Rs and the Lombards.
Only the Franks remained pagan until the Western Roman Empire 芒 鈧?”where they were foederati of were 芒 鈧? disappeared.Then Clovis, King of the Franks, brought his people to the Catholic faith, which gave him better connection to his nationals of Roman descent.
Both Edward James and Marinus Wes argue that Clovis probably was an Arian in his childhood and thus did not transfer directly from Paganism to Catholicism, as Gregory would have liked to have imagined.Also Clovis芒 鈧劉 environment, and so all the Frankish notables were around 500 as good as certainly originally Arianen.
In arian kingdoms, the gap between the Germanic nobility and the great majority of Romanesque and Catholic populations remained large.For example, it was preached in the Germanic church. For the Germanic rulers, Arianism was also a means of not being absorbed by the indigenous majority as a small minority.
In the Vandals empire in North Africa, the opposition to violence and persecution of Catholics (at least according to Gregory of Tours) led to a Catholic source.
The Arian empires then went one by one.The Vandals and Ostrogoths were destroyed by Justinian And The Burgundians by the Franks.The Sueven passed from its own movement to Catholicism, to acquire more support against their mighty Arian Visigoth neighbors.That did not prevent them from being destroyed by them.
The Visigoths in Spain continued to hold on to Arianism until King Reccared I converted to catholicism in 589 .He wanted to give his kingdom a better connection to neighbouring countries and overcome the internal contradictions. Even longer Ariaans remained the Lombards in Italy, their last Arian king died in 671.When with these kings the last mighty protectors of Arianism had been dropped and the remaining Arians were persecuted, this variation in Christianity fell within a short time. Also the Gothic language, which was used in the Arian worship service, disappeared then rapidly.
The Franks consisted of an alliance between different Germanic tribes formed in the third century in the current northeast of the Netherlands and northwest of Germany.
From the third century onwards, they penetrated the Roman Empire.Partly as an ally, partly as an enemy. A slow germanisation along the border took place. The language boundary between Germanic and romance is therefore up to the day can today a piece within the Roman side of the border.
Most of the Germanic connections that entered the Roneinse Empire were Arian Christians and in that sense different from the Catholic Romanesque population.King Clovis of the Franks, however, decided to become a Catholic. This gave the Franks a firmer position and they were accepted within the Roman institutions. As a result, the Franks probably had a significant advantage over the Arian Germans.
The Franks came from the country, about the surroundings of Frankfurt.In 274, a part fell into the Roman Empire. They wwere defeated by Rome, but not expelled. Gradually, as allies for the Romans (the Good riders) were more important. Around 400 they were scattered across the south of the Netherlands, Belgium and northern France. The Dutch language is descended from Lower Franconian dialekten. After 400 Storrte the Roman Empire. Around 500, Clovis allied the Frankish tribes to one great empire that included France and the Low Countries, among others. Charles the great descended from him, who became Emperor of Western Europe in 800.