See Wikipedia article Black-Red-Gold – Wikipedia
- The colors black-red-gold were those of the uniforms of the Lützowsches Freikorps – Wikipedia, a troupe of nationally aroused idealists, students and academics who were deployed in Prussia in 1813 during the Napoleonic Liberation Wars as a kind of guerrilla against the French troops fought.
It is also reported that the LützowEr Freikorps had a flag in black-red with a golden border. The uniform colors were mainly chosen pragmatically, because the members of the Freikorps had to get their own uniforms and black was easy to realize. The history of this Freikorps was relatively short and ended with a crushing defeat, but was romantically transfigured in the period after that, which probably also contributed to the fate of the poet Theodor Körner (writer) – Wikipedia, who died in the course of the last battle of the Lützower.
If, in the wars of liberation, one hoped for a “humanist liberation” and the establishment of a German nation-state for the people of the various German states, who had fought together against Napoleon, the result of the Congress of Vienna was the exact opposite: restoration of an absolutist monarchy, adherence to small-statehood.
First, the Jenaer Urburschenschaft chose the colors of the Lützow hunters as the colors of their fellow ship flag (Source: Wikiedia):
- In 1817, this flag was shown to the public for the first time at the Wartburgfest – Wikipedia, where many students also attached Schwar-Red-Golden Cockades to the hats.
- At the Hambach Festival in 1832, many black-red-golden tricolourswere shown as a symbol of the pursuit of freedom, civil rights and German unity.
Until then, the colors had become widespread in connection with the boyhood movement. For this reason, the flags on the Hambach Castle were still mostly visible in the lading order “black-red-gold from below” (see figure below).As the main flag of the Hambach Festival, Johann Philipp Abresch produced the first tricolor in the order in use today with the inscription “Germany’s Rebirth”.This “original flag” from 1832 is now in the museum in Hambach Castle in Neustadt on the Weinstraße.
At the end of 1848, the Frankfurt National Assembly – Wikipedia – established these colors as those of a German Imperial Flag.However, this flag was banned in the course of the conservative roll-back and the military suppression of the revolutionaries by Prussian and Austrian troops in 1849 and 1850 – as an imperial flag, with the founding of the German Empire, the Prussia.
In this respect, the colours stand for a united Germany with civil rights and freedoms and are a symbol of monarchical oppression and petty statehood.
As a side note: I see the symbolism of the German flag, by the way, similar to the text of the German song: it was a symbol against the German petty statehood and the rule of small-minded provincial princes.”Germany, Germany above all” was in this respect not an expression of chauvinistic arrogance towards our neighbours (for this it was only made in the Third Reich), but the expression of a longing for a united Germany, which it was at the time of the poetry of the Germany song did not exist – unfortunately the language and the romantic emotional expressions of the time leave room for distortions… All right-wingers and neo-Nazis who use the Black-Red-Golden Flag and sing the first stanza of the German song trample on the memory of those who fought for freedom and the rule of law.