What is a fallacy and are there different types?

A fallacy is a reasoning that is not correct, but seems plausible.

A number of things can be based on incorrect reasoning or fallacy, namely:

  • A false deduction,
  • Or a faulty induction,
  • Or an erroneous Premiss,
  • or incorrect semantics,
  • Or there is a wrong burden of proof where the reasoning is not verifiable.

And in all cases, the inference or conclusion is therefore incorrect.

So a good reasoning always has:

  1. A right premise,
  2. A correct conclusion or inference,
  3. is deductively correct or inductively correct,
  4. Has sound semantics
  5. and is verifiable.

If a reasoning does not meet at least one of these points, but is recognised by people as such, it is a fallacy.

There are many species which are divided into a number of categories.

Based on false deductive reasoning (a.o.), formal fallacies:

  • Argumentum ad Ignorantiam
  • Argumentum AD A
  • Argumentum ex Silentio
  • Non sequitur
  • Retrorsum causa et effectus
  • Post hoc ergo propter hoc
  • Jizz Hoc ergo propter hoc
  • Secundum Quid
  • False dichotomy
  • Confirmation of the consequence
  • Random correlation

Based on incorrect premisses (a.o.), informal fallacies:

  • Ad hominem
  • Tu quoque
  • Ad to
  • Ad populum
  • Ad Antiquitatem
  • Ad Novitatem
  • Ad Baculum
  • Ad odium
  • Ad Misericordiam
  • Argumentum ad Superbiam

Based on incorrect semantics (a.o.), Fallacies of Confusion:

  • Ad AD
  • Ambiguic fallacy
  • Equivocation
  • Amphibolia

Based on incorrect burden of proof (A.O.):

  • Quod free Asseritur Free Negatur

Axiomatic propositions without land outside themselves (A.O.):

  • Petitio Princii

Other fallacies (a.o.), problems with induction, generalization or observation:

  • Ad Consequentiam
  • Plurium Interrogationum
  • Inclined plane

Recognition and refute of fallacies

One way to recognise fallacies as such is with a Reductio ad absurdum, which is a form of an indirect evidence, which itself resembles a fallacy, but that is not. The Reductio ad absurdum has been widely used in the old Roman legal profession.A modern example of an indirect proof is a stop problem, which is widely used in computer science (discovered by Alan Turing in 1936).

Other ways to refute fallacies are:

  • An allegory,
  • or satire,
  • Or dialectic,
  • or a syllogism.

However, an apparent refutation in itself is also a fallacy, often this is:

  • An error in the method,
  • or an error in the definition,
  • or improper inference,
  • or incorrect interpretation,
  • or incorrect subject,
  • or incorrect proposition.

A fallacy is therefore always both inconsistent and inconsistently.

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