Wisdom (English:wisdom, altgr.Lat. sapientia, hebr.hokhmah) primarily refers to an in-depth understanding of connections in nature, life and society, as well as the ability to identify the most coherent and meaningful course of action in the event of problems and challenges.
There are several definitions and concepts of wisdom, which usually move in the tensions between rationality and intuition, knowledge and faith, as well as between experience and instinct.There is broad agreement in the view that wisdom testifies to spiritual agility and independence: it enables its wearer to systematically do things
- to think (“a wise knowledge”, “a wise decision”, “a wise judgment”),
- to say (“a wise word”, “a wise counsel”) or
- to do so (“a wise behaviour”),
which prove to be sustainable in the given situation.This is often done while avoiding disturbing influences, such as one’s own emotional state or social group compulsion.However, on closer examination and a comprehensive assessment of all circumstances, sometimes only with a time or space, these considerations, statements and actions turn out to be “correct”, correct or “true”.The same applies to words and actions which the wise man does not pronounce or do after careful consideration (cf.”Si tacuisses, philosophus mansisses“).Wisdom is counted among the cardinal virtues.
Wisdom is the subject of philosophy and theology,individual religions and ethnology, sociology of knowledge and personalitypsychology, fairy talesand Research ofmyths as well as in their artistic designs through art, literature and music.