What are the ‘Three Stories of the 20th Century’ after Yuval Harari?

The Three Stories of the 20th Century

During the 20th century in Europe, three great stories tried to explain the narrative of humanity in its entirety and offered a vision for Europe as well as for the whole world.It was the history of the

  1. Faschishmus
  2. Communism
  3. Liberalism

The fascist narrative is that history is a struggle among different nations.It was a world in which a certain group of people dominates the world and violently subjugates the other groups.


The communist narrative, on the other hand, says that history is not a struggle among nations, but a struggle among classes.

It brought to mind a world in which all groups of people are united under a centralised social system that guarantees equality at the expense of freedom.


The liberal narrative, at the end of the day, is that history is not a struggle among nations, nor is it a class conflict, but an expression between freedom and tyranny.

This narrative brought to mind a world in which all people cooperate freely and peacefully with each other, with a minimum of central government control, in favour of inequality.


Gradually, through World War II and the Cold War, the narratives of fascism and communism were overridden, and in the last two decades the world was ultimately led by a global liberal order.

The order was based on the understanding that all human beings have the same experiences and interests at its core, and that we are all subjects to equal universal values, and no group of people is fundamentally superior to others. Cooperation is therefore more sensible than conflict. All people should work together to advance our common values and interests.

And in order to promote such cooperation, liberalism has advised us to strengthen international laws and organizations to facilitate the exchange of ideas, goods, and people around the world.

Although the liberal basic order has had many quirks and problems, it has proved superior to the alternatives.For the liberal world of the 21st century is marked with more prosperity, health, and peace than ever before.

Source: Yuval Noah Harari & Chancellor Sebastian Kurz in Conversation

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