“What are the most politically uncertain countries in the world and what has they brought to this end?”
I believe that many of the most politically uncertain countries in the world are found in sub-Saharan Africa.The Congo (Democratic Republic of the Congo) would be an excellent nomination for the dishonor. Since the end of the years 90 Congo (or: The Democratic Republic of the Congo-the country goes with many names-) has been severely disrupted by the consequences of a civil war. The country has been missing internal sovereignty, centralized power and production of public goods for more than 20 years. There are militias, rebels and parallel government structures that are separate from the central government. In 2019, for the first time (more or less) democratic elections have been held for a new government, however, the outcome of this is disputed and Western media agree that the new government could also be disastrous for the population of Congo (see below how the Guardian headlines in response to the outcome).
The reason for the conflict
At the end of the genocide in Rwanda-where within a period of 5 months between the 500,000 and 1 million Tutsi were murdered by a Hutu majority-groups of Hutus fled the east of Congo.
They are haunted by Tutsi militias, who collude with Congolese rebels and make a stab at the crown of Congos eccentric leader Mobutu Seko (Appendix: Photo of Mobutu Seko with Prince Bernard and a few seemingly delicious beers).
Within a period of one year, the Congolese government (Mobutu) is deposited and a new government is installed.
The new regent, Laurent D茅sir茅 Kabila, sends the Tutsi-who helped him to the throne-miserably away from Congo. A move that eventually leads to a new conflict. The rest in the country, even in the now, does not return.
Although these events, mentioned above, clearly reflect the cause of the conflict, these events cannot be seen as the causes of the conflict.The country has, namely, always known problems even for the influence of Rwandese refugees.
The causes of the conflict
The main cause of the political turmoil is (surprise, surprise) the history of the country with colonialism.Congo was colonized in the 19th century and created by the Belgians. The boundaries of what is now the Congo were drawn without deep reflection at the Berlin Conference in 1885. The obtaining of pieces of Africa was very popular among European imperialists in the 19th century. Central Africa was/is extremely wealthy in the field of raw materials where a large market was in Europe, King Leopold wanted to benefit from this. Rubber and copper were abundant in the area of the Congo, the Belgians took the area and built an infrastructure and government to win raw materials. Other industries or infrastructure were not developed. When the Belgians left, the country remained behind with a limited centralised power, limited infrastructure and a total absence of national unity.
The artificial boundaries and limited infrastructure lead to a difficult situation for future governments.The country is not created by togetherness and the boundaries close different peoples within or outside the country with complete arbitrariness. Without a sense of togetherness, no stable state can be built, simply because no one is willing to cooperate with ‘ outsiders ‘. Congo has always suffered from this colonial past. Long periods of relative rest-such as the period during Mobutu’s reign-are characterized by violence and chaos. Congo has never been able to be a country.
This is true, as I said above, for a shocking number of countries in Africa.In particular, the countries of the Sahara, whose borders are drawn from the loose wrist by the drooping Europeans, are risk sensitive. The Congo is best known, but Somalia, Uganda and many other countries have followed the same pattern.