What are the Arabic inventions of the Middle Ages still in use today?

Look at objects that still have an Arabic name, such as mattress and Caraf.These were things that the Crusaders took from the Middle East.

But the real Brille was with the astronomers, the chemists and the mathematicians.Sadly, the philosopher Al-Ghazali declared beta-science around 1100 on-Islamic. He found that thinking in physical laws denies the omnipotence of Allah. If Allah wants an apple not to fall but flies away then it just happens. So you cannot formulate a law for the phenomenon of gravity. His vision struck and in the shortest, all the science in the Muslim world was dead. That is the case today.

“,” There was once an alchemist, Jabir ibn Hayyan.He was looking for a way to make ‘ the Stone of Sages ‘, which could change ordinary metals in gold. This did not succeed, but he invented many techniques such as distillation, evaporation and filtration. They made it possible to collect and store scents of plants in vapor form in water or oil. This is now perfume.

“,” In the field of shipping, the Arabs invented the compass and the plumb.Despite GPS and sonar, these things are still used.

The most commonly used Arabic invention can only be 漏 脙 漏 n thing: They used the word 芒 鈧?虄sifir芒 鈧劉, which means empty.Later that in Europe was partly stunned to 芒 鈧?虄zero芒 鈧劉, the number zero was completely unknown in Europe. We are still thankful to use it. In other words, thanks for nothing Arabia.

Trust

The Arab contribution to the law (especially to the Anglo-Saxon legal systems) is the trust, which is based on the Arab Waqf.

In a Waqf , the founder makes properties available to another, the administrator.This administrator owns the goods but under the management title of the Waqf.He may act with these matters only insofar as this is permitted under the provisions of the Waqf .For these acts, only the capacity of the Waqf is liable, unless the administrator has committed to negligence or maladministration.The Waqf is usually set up to achieve a social purpose and the profits of the Waqfability should also benefit.

The Waqf became the trust, the administrator became the Trustee, and the founder the settlor.The trust functions practically the same as the Waqf and is used in the Anglo-Saxon world in the same way.This also does a foundation thinking, although a foundation in contrast to a trust possesses legal personality.

Zakat

Another Arab contribution in the social-tax field was the zakat.In earlier times, taxation was something that the nobles and princes mainly financed their armies but not otherwise. A large part of the social life played itself in the family, and outside was the community. The family cared for the elderly and the sick, medized in conflicts, took care of work in the family business or on the family farm, and certain who would marry with whom. In addition, for conflict mediation and poor care there were marginal roles for the community (read: Village) and the church. You paid tax and performed gentlemen’s services in exchange for protection and thus everything was said. The nobility and King did not launder the Dorstigen, did not feed the hungry, did not dress the nudes. Moreover, the surplus of the taxed citizens and communities was too small.

However, the Zakat was levied on wealthy citizens and used for social purposes.The money was explicitly earmarked for social goals (in the Christian church it was as far as poor care was less explicit and less comprehensive) and the tax rules were fixed fairly accurately (again in contrast to the mostly Arbitrary charges in other countries). This was especially the same as in Islam the difference between church and state did not exist: the Sharia gold both in worldly and religious matters, for both business between people and those between man and God.The giving of alms, especially when one could miss it, was encouraged and obliged. A religious tax that was funded by Social Affairs was revolutionary at the time of the first kalifates. It was only in the 19th century that European countries began to introduce social security systems.

I could not mention it as soon, but it is quite a bit.The lazy were not stupid but external factors have contributed to their contemporary backwardness and that they can be manipulated.

Windmills

Our way of counting with Arabic instead of Latin numerals.

Hygiene rules.

The Camera obscura as a forerunner of the cinematography.

Grtn, Stign

Our figures 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 are Arabic numerals.That suddenly was a lot finer than the previous Roman numerals I, II, III, IV etc.

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