In contrast to conventional macroscopic particles, quantum objects have a relative existence for observation and no precisely specified location and no precisely defiinated velocity.They are inaccurate in this respect, they are often said to be “smeared”. The principle behind it is therefore called “Heisenberg’s blurring relation” after the discoverer.
However, if one gives a second to a quantum particle, and brings them so close together that their wave functions touch, they become distinguishable.But first of all, only that. Not yet determinable.
If you want to determine them, you only have to find a large number of particles of the same wave function without changing their individual particles.
Due to this basic requirement, the development of symmetrical and anti-symmetric many particle wave functions was developed.These wave functions ensure that the above viraussung actually occurs; that an exchange of particles does not cause any physical change.
And here we are with a fundamental distinction: all particles in nature can basically be divided into two categories.
- Particles with symmetrical wave function are called bosons,
- particles with anti-symmetric wave function fermions.
Despite all the research, there is no physical theory that can predict which particles are bosons and which fermions.Only one theoretical justification:
An empirical finding that particles with integer spin are bosons and those with half-number spin fermions.
Spin is a property of quantum mechanical objects, which can be imagined, in simple terms, as a self-rotation of the particle, just as the Earth rotates around its own axis.However, this view is not entirely correct.
Bosons are the elementary particles that are usually responsible for the transmission of forces.All bosons have an integer spin and are not subject to the Pauli principle. This allows them to colonize the same quantum mechanical condition.
We can thus state that bosons differ from the fermions in the symmetry of their wave functions.Their wave function is symmetrical compared to swaps. So if you exchange two particles from a collection of many bosons, that doesn’t change the wave function. In the case of fermions, on the other hand, the exchange changes the sign of the wave function.
As an example of a boson, one can use this e.g. a photon, which is no different than a light particle, a quantum of an electromagnetic field.The vast majority of them have the same frequency and move in the same direction. They thus occupy the same quantum state. Only a small part of the emitted photons has a different frequency or direction of propagation.
The standard model of particle physics represents bosons as elementary particles, as does the hypothetical gravitational pull as the carrier of gravity is a boson, as well as the Higgs boson, which gives the particles their mass.Bosons can also be composed of several particles, e.g. the Cooper pairs of electrons and phonons as charge carriers in the superconductor, or more well-known:
- atomic nuclei with a straight nucleon count or
- mesons, i.e. quark antiquark pairs.
If you want to go beyond, you have to leave the standard model of particle physics.
One then meets, for example, the “string theory” developed-This states that the fundamental building blocks that make up the world are not particles in the sense of points (i.e. zero-dimensional objects), but vibrating one-dimensional objects.These one-dimensional objects are called strings. Elementary particles can be imagined as a vibrational excitation of the strings, whereby the frequency corresponds to an energy according to the quantum mechanics. Divergences (infinite values of the integrals) arise especially for point particles from their self-interaction effect, which is “smeared” and thus mitigated in extended, e.g. one-dimensional, objects.
String theory thus describes elementary particles not in a dot-shaped way, but as tiny vibrating strings.These strings can be both closed and open. Closed strings resemble a tiny rubber ring, open strings can be imagined as clamped violin strings. The clamping points in this case are themselves dynamic objects, so-called dirichlet-branen (D-Branen) and move in space-time. The researchers used open strings and D-brans to explain the nature of space-time near the Big Bang.
The simplest string theory, describes a simple bosonic string theory but without fermions.It describes that the light cone quantization is not manifestly covariant, but string, a point particle that moves through space-time. He describes a one-dimensional curve and a two-dimensional world surface.
Scientists see similarities to the Big Bang, where expansion of our universe depends on time and is the same at every point and in every direction.
This also blurs and blurs time.However, classical theory cannot be applied to a fuzzy space-time. At the MAx Planck Institute in Munich, a model was developed for the first time, how classical space-time emerges from this blurred quantum space- – and this with the help of string theory. In addition to the loop quantum gravity, it is one of the two theories that could in future take on the “successor” of relativity theory. However, both theories are still experimentally unprovable and therefore pure thought buildings are, it explains a homogeneous and isotropic universe. The model of the Munich physicists mentally covers the Robertson-Walker space-time with a network of infinitely many string clamping points, with D-Branen, and connects the dots with each other with open strings.
Due to the multidimensionality of the string evetualities, different states and a supersymmetry between bosons and fermions can be mapped.
There are a lot of critics of this superstring theory, some even go so far as to deny string theory the role of a falsifiable scientific theory.For example, the Nobel laureate Wolfgang Pauli says experimentally unverifiable (and also not falsifiable) theories that for physical phenomena they are not even wrong.
It must be noted that “everything is nothing and becomes nothing if you look at it differently”.