In 1880, the teacher celibacy in the German Reich was decided by ministerial decree.In the Weimar Republic, there is first a turning point:
“The difficult economic situation ensures the continued existence of teacher celibacy:
In 1919, Article 128 II of the Weimar Reich Constitution seemed to put an end to discrimination against female teachers: “All exceptions against female civil servants will be eliminated,” it said.
However, as the economic situation deteriorated further and more and jobs were scarce as a result of inflation, this article was adopted four years later (27.October 1923) revised by the “Ordinance on the Reduction of Personnel Expenditure of the Reich”, or in short “Personnel Reduction Ordinance“, in order to secure jobs for male teachers.
In the Reichsgesetzblatt, No. 108 in Article 14, the teachers could now read: “The employment of married female civil servants and teachers in the service of the Reich, the L盲nder and the municipalities (…) may be terminated at any time on the first working day of a month at the end of the month (…)”.The “may” in Article 14 made it possible that during the Second World War, when many teachers were on the front line as soldiers, the celibacy clause was at times less strictly observed. “(The Teacher’s Celibacy)
The Nazi ideology then oriented the woman towards the family:
“… But other laws also determined the life of the German woman in National Socialism.Women were denied the right to stand as a candidate, women were no longer admitted to judicial professions, from 1934 doctors were no longer allowed to open practices and the proportion of women in universities was only allowed to amount to 10% of all students. In addition, the husband was allowed to make all the decisions in the marriage. According to Section 1343 of the Civil Code, he was the one who could force the wife to give up her profession or determine where the couple lived. He could also divorce his wife if it turned out she was infertile or refused to have children. … ” (The German woman and her role in National Socialism | ZbE)
“13 This displacement of women was most pronounced in the academic professions.This is also supported, for example, by Section 28 of the German Civil Service Act of 1937, in which the condition for a lifetime civil service for male civil servants was the completion of the age of 27, whereas for female civil servants the age limit was 35 years.” (GRIN – The history of female teachers at the time of the Nazi dictatorship)
Another role played was the “Law on the Reduction of Unemployment” of 1.6.1933 (Document: From the “Law on the Reduction of Unemployment” of 1.6.1933 (Document: From the “Law on the Reduction of Unemployment” of 1.6.1933), http://www.servat.unibe.ch/dns/R… (http://www.servat.unibe.ch/dns/R…)) where section 5, Marriage Loan, stipulates that the loan is granted only if the woman ceases her activity as an employee and does not resume.
I know from my husband’s grandmother that she had to quit as a teacher (in the middle of the school year) because her husband forbade her from working.
I am also aware that, at least for civil servants who marry, the husband received a higher income (spouse supplement!), which led to this supplement being deducted from the married woman.Thus the woman worked for much less money than the husband and made the woman’s professional activity unattractive.
In my opinion, these legal regulations were simply more or less maintained until 1951.