This is actually an incredibly exciting question.
First of all, to the question there are 2answers, one based on general relativity,and one based on quantummechanics.Since there is no coherent quantum relativity (United Field Theory) so far, I could only make unfounded speculative statements about this.
Question – Explained in more detail
The photon is the exchange particle of the electromagnetic force and the gravitational is the exchange particle ofgravity.How can it be that photons cannot escape a black hole to communicate this information to the universe, but gravitas can escape it to communicate the mass information of the black hole to the universe?
General theory of relativity
The mass information of the object is not communicated via an exchange particle, but is given by the curvature of the space-time continuum.The more the space is curved by the object, the more the object must have mass.
So no replacement particle is necessary.
Space-time itself is the source ofinformation.The room changes its curvature with the maximum information forwarding of c (light speed). No particles with mass escape the black hole, but only mass-less space, and that is absolutely allowed.
It can also be considered a continuously collapsing star in which the mass never crosses the event horizon due to time dilation.
Space is an ocean of ever-evolving and destructive virtual particles.Particles + antiparticle pairsalways form, exist briefly, destroy themselves again and return the energy that was necessary for them to arise.Space is never empty, but constantly filled and fluctuating.
These particles break the energy conservation principle of physics by their very existence.
They generate mass from no energy until they return that energy.
During their existence, these virtual particles can bypass a set of rules that apply to normal particles.One of these rules is that they can move faster thanc.This means they can leave the black hole.
An example of this interaction is Hawking Radiation.
An infinite amount of virtual particles constantly escapes from the blackhole.
So it is not true that no particles or can’t escape energy. Black holes are finite and continuously lose energy/mass.
These escaping virtual particles tell the universe the properties of the black hole, such as its mass, its spin, its movement through space.