I think the search for the opposite of gravity is over

Peter, no one will, why should you … contradict you, with this unequivocal statement.Everyone knows that the opposite of sweet green is! Don’t you know the opposite of horse: ant! Since we don’t say anything against it,

No one would come across an antonym like Levitation…. Help… I’m floating … EErrnaaaa!

Or did you mean the cause?

Or what else?

The beauty of gravity is that it is familiar to all people.It is very practical because it holds the earth together quite well and also ensures that my soup stays in the spoon. Thanks to gravity, we know that we should only look for loose objects near our feet. You can also notice something like this about gravity and expansion!

Fair enough… Let’s go step by step.Several billion years ago, it did “BUMM“.At least that’s how they say it was the “GREATBANG”.(I would like to know who came up with this expression….No one could hear this, because there was nothing to hear, so a “bumm” without noise… Weird, there’s no space anyway….). But now there was something…… there was space and time!I had already said in other answers: without space no time and without time no space. If that hadn’t been, there would be no gravitational pull here. or? Or was it already hidden before and only hidden?

Space-time, however, is now a physical reality.They are not just an idea of the human spirit. They are as real as matter. And just like matter, they are also a form of energy. Space and time are equivalent to energy. The energy of space-time ultimately leads to the flight motion of the galaxies, as first described by Hubble. And the universe is growing faster than it should:

With Hubble, the astronomers have now been able to measure the most accurate survey to date and thus calculate the rate of expansion.

For the physics that has now been detected, however, this acceleration is now a major problem 鈥?it is 9 percent higher than the value of 67 to a maximum of 69 kilometers per second per megaparsec, as it was based on recent measurements from the time immediately after the Big Bang. measured.This should not have changed since the creation of the universe.

There are two theories:

Dark energy, which is supposed to drive the expansion of the universe, is accelerated itself.In this way, the universe would not only expand faster, but would also do so at a rate that is also accelerated in itself. Since we know little so far about the postulated dark energy (not to be confused with dark matter), such an as yet unknown effect cannot be ruled out.

Another theory postulates the existence of a still unknown subatomicparticle, which interacts with gravity, but not with the other known basic forces.Such so-called sterile neutrinos could move at an approximate speed of light, influencing the evolution of the universe.

However, we should wait and see: the new measurements could also be explained by the fact that astronomers have underestimated the interaction between dark matter and the directly observable universe.

But anyway:

Since that BUMM, our universe has grown … or do we just thinkso?In any case, we expect it to be bigger. And if ETWAS gets a little bigger, it gets more. And when it gets much bigger, it becomes much more.

Now you say that gravity is the opposite of expansion, and you assume that gravity is inversely related to expansion.That is, the more expansion, the lower the gravity? Or is that mispronounced?

So this KRAFT … gravity, gravity, was suddenly there. The other forces are the electromagnetic force, strong and weak force 鈥?the latter two play a special role in the subatomic realm and are important for understanding the cohesion of the matter around us.So it was created or came from somewhere else.

But what is this – gravity? This has been the case for thousands of years:

Aristotle, as a disciple of Plato and as an educator of Alexander the Great, tried to explain the movement of the sun, the moon and the then known planet by quite simple models.The dormant Earth was at the center of this model (geocentric view of the world), and the sun, moon and planets circled around it. The circle as a perfect geometric figure was the basis for the movements of these bodies as circular movements. This explained the approximately periodic repetition of the movement of the stars. After all, once the circular railway had been completed, the cycle began anew. The stars were considered motionless fixed stars. Without precise measurements and observations, this model was consistent with nature observations.

Aristotle also tried to explain the movement of falling bodies on Earth.For him, the straight fall path was proof that the earth was resting.

Claudius Ptolemy, the author of the first standard work of astronomy, modified this world view so that the centers of circular orbits in turn move on circles, the so-called deferenten.BUT ALWAYS NOCH, not all movements of the celestial bodies could be described with epicyclles without contradiction. The WHY, WHY, WIESO and HOW remained open and unfounded, at least not conclusive.

Galileo Galilei is the first to systematically and mathematically research gravity.It is said that Galilei conducted case experiments at the Leaning Tower of Pisa to test his hypothesis as to whether the weight or density of a body decides how quickly the body falls. Galilei also conducted numerous mechanical experiments with pendulums and rolling objects on the lopsided plane. He explained the path of projectiles in the gravity field by superimposing two movements, namely uniformly accelerated fall motion and uniformly straight projectile movement (super position principle) and proved the parabolic path.

With Isaac Newton, a new huge breakthrough was achieved.Newtonian gravitational physics is the first real gravitational theory, which is a consistent, comprehensive concept and not just phenomenology or hypothesis. Newton presented this theory in his work Philosophiae naturalis principia mathematica, the first standard work of theoretical physics!

Newton questioned the astronomical observations of Johannes Kepler and his discovery that the planets move around the sun on elliptical orbits.and sought a physical explanation as to why this was so.

He was able to explain the second Keplerlaw (area set) in such a way that there must be an attractive central force emanating from the sun.

The Book I of the Principia contains the three laws of movement that are taught today as Newtonian laws, namely the

  • Law of inertia
  • dynamic Basic Law and
  • Reaction principle (actio = reactio).

Book II is a textbook on fluid mechanics.

Finally, in Book III, Newton presents his law of gravity and demonstrates the validity of this gravitational theory based on the movements of planets and comets.

However, Newtonian theory also states that gravity spreads instantaneously, i.e. without any runtime delay.

Time and space have an absolute character.

It was only Albert Einstein who shaped a completely new view of gravity, just as concepts of energy, mass, time and space were redefined.

Einstein combines space and time into a four-dimensional structure: space-time.One could simply imagine a two-dimensional variant as “curved space-time” wherea a “bump” is created by masses in this 2D space-time.

Masses and all forms of energy cause ‘bumps’ in space-time.

A (force-free) movement through space-time is now not possible in any form, but only along certain curves, which are called in the ART geodes. The geodesy ‘meander’ through the ‘dented space-time’ 鈥?as exactly happens, the computational laws of differential geometry dictate. The movement along the geodesics we take as gravity was. So we move daily under the influence of curved space-time!

Now it is difficult to imagine a four-dimensional, curved space-time as a three-dimensional being, but it can be mathematically depicted with its derivatives.This also allows you to draw space-time diagrams that help you understand. The basis for this is the field equations of the ART.

(here for simplification without cosmological constants).

In this concise form, the formula states directly that the curved space-time that is in G is caused by mass and energy that are stuck in T; the equation also contains the aspect that the dents of space-time dictate movement.

However, the simplicity of this formula is deceptive!

In fact, it’s a slightly more complicated size that curves the space: the energy-pulse tensor.DAs can perhaps be imagined as a machine into which you have to put two shady vectors in order to get a value.

If one knows the field of energy-impulse tensors from a matter distribution, one knows everything about the mass, energy, impulse and pressure distribution in this mass.And because a tensor has very specific mathematical properties, you also know how to get these sizes in any coordinate system for any observer.

The tensoral gebra in the general theory of relativity ART is a powerful tool to describe symmetries of the world around us.But it is not as vivid as a blanket.

Behind the symbols G and T are mathematical objects called tensors.More specifically, G is the Einstein tensor and T is called Energy Pulse Tensor. In general, these objects are very complicated, consist of multiple components and vary from time of space to time of space.

Space-times are generally also dynamic, i.e. they constantly change their curvature properties.This is especially the case with gravitational waves, which can also be described with Einstein’s theory. As already mentioned, these are best imagined as dents in space-time, which spread at the vacuum light speed c.

But now it is the case that a body is alone and curves the space.Each body bends it and influences other bodies.

From this concludes:

  • Gravity is a property of mass.
  • All the masses attract each other.
  • The mass gravitational pull or gravity depends on the mass of the bodies and the square of their distance.

In other words, gravity is proportional to the masses involved and inversely proportional to the squares of their distances to each other.

This is an important difference from Newtonian physics: gravity in Einstein’s theory does not spread at will, but exactly with c.

Each event thus has its effective time determined from c.

And because this is the case, gravity can now be measured and thus directly demonstrated:


…… schnauf….there we are now through….and what follows from this:

  • Horses are not suitable as a comparison for taste variants and
  • Gravity not for the expansion of space.

Or is it… in parallel universes and a universe foam of strings and superstrings, this would be conceivable.

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