When the first aircraft of a new type came out of the factory, pilot flights were carried out by test pilots.
Among other things, we tried out at what speed the aircraft can get off the ground at a certain weight.Often a wooden skate under the rear trunk is temporarily fastened so that the new aircraft is not damaged.
Then one knows whether the pre-made calculations are correct, and thus one can draw up a table on the basis of the flight tests and further calculating work with the minimum speed for each starting weight to loosen from the ground without having the hull back the asphalt of the Runway.
With each weight, a certain speed is supposed to ‘ disconnect ‘ the nose wheel from the plane by pulling the steering column backwards.In addition, the pilot must tilt the position of the hull by 3 degrees per second to a value that allows a safe ascent. If this is done at the right speed, the plane comes ‘ out of the feathers ‘ and is already with all the wheels in the air before the tail can hit the ground.
On landing, the tables will also depend on the calculated landing weight (lighter than at the start, because in the meantime fuel consumed) a proximity speed is determined.It depends on the selected position of the landing valves on the wing, and is also corrected for the variability of the wind.
If a calculation error or table-reading error is made when determining the starting speed or landing speed, or if the wind is suddenly changing during the start or just before landing, it can still happen that a plane with the tail touches the ground.
Nowadays, the listed tables and calculations are programmed in computers.But man is always still able to make blunders, and it happens a very few times that an input error is made, and if you do not check correctly whether the results of the computer can exist with the (assumed) infeed The data, which is sometimes a start with incorrect data is executed. A few times a hull light is damaged, but that is usually not critical immediately. Many planes have a reinforcement or a protective support in the critical place. So this possibility of an unintentional touch is thought.
The question asked was: “How does a pilot ensure that the tail of an airplane does not touch the ground?”
Well, after this introductory explanation, the essence of the answer may be clear: the pilot makes a proper calculation (CQ computer input) that he has the correct speeds for the start or landing, and then also to maintain or apply those speeds. Prevents the tail from hitting the ground.
The Dutch Royal Air Force uses two KDC-10 tanker/transport planes, converted from DC-10 aircraft taken from Martinair.They can refuelling other planes in the air, which is why there is a retractable and extendable tank tube behind the hull since then, and therefore one uses the appropriate maximum angles with which the nose can be raised without Tank tube hits the ground. That smaller maximum angle means that for the same takeoff weight as it used to be, a slightly higher starting speed is needed, and the approaching speed at landing is also adjusted.
All the big planes are running towards the rear pointed upwards.
As a result, a pilot should not pay attention to his starting speed, which can be so heavily laden that quick start is not in it and then those engines are allowed to rotate almost full speed, then that tail will not hit the ground.
This is purely because of the design so placement of the wings T. O. v the hull.