Well, computers actually only consist of executable code and data.So you then have programming languages and markup languages.And that’s quite a bit. The most well-known of these in the process description of Import-> Processing-> Output, Or the IPO model.Input and output have a certain format and the processing is your program.
There are still variants on this model but more than code and data you just do not have.
And a burning LED light then?Well, that’s just data. Actually just a bit that is on or off. Analogue data if the light can be dimmed. Even code is actually data with which you could argue that a programming language is also a markup language, but that just goes a little too far.
However, formatting and code in a programming language are actually mixed.Think of a record or a class/object. That’s data, not executable code. Thus, a class or record is actually formatting. And in many programming languages you have to deal with this kind of formatting, which I prefer to call structures.
Because formatting describes a data structure and code also contains structures, you could argue that both are structured languages.Are there any unstructured languages? Actually, but under the Category of esoteric programming languages.The programming language Piet for example.This is actually only code and although it can process data it does not have a data structure that you can define. And also no specific structure with which you write code, except that you use colorful squares… (Formatting to your own artistic preferences…)
So you have structured and unstructured and under structured you have formatting and programming language.And both can then be further subdivided into various groups of languages that can also overlap with one another.
Wim Ten Brink gives an interesting answer to this question.He answers the question of the essence of the execution of the software built with a programming language.
My view on the question shows applications.For example, there are specialised programming languages for various task areas. Usually they are perceived as ‘ packages ‘ because they require less of the noble ‘ handicraft ‘ that Wim ten Brink is referring to.
Take PERL for natural programming of natural language processing (e.g.Finding drugs that have already been developed (and published) against a specific cancer) if the search needs to go deeper than a keyword through Google. With ‘ deeper ‘ I mean that Japanese and Chinese production should also be viewed. We use such kind of search to prevent the medication-debacles, where a drug was re-developed (at high cost) while it was already tested and prescribed in a non-English language area!
Also a specialist programming language is MAPLE, to replace mathematicians, statisticians, actuaries, physicists and others or to relieve their work.
For example, COMSOL is a language for machine designers to take work out of your hands.
For programming satellites, pacemakers, exoskeletons, robots and spacecraft, very ‘ economical ‘ languages are in use.
There are also (data or information) modeling languages and Meta languages.
Examples of meta-languages are EXPRESS (ISO 10303 -11) and OWL.
Express is called a ‘ data modelling language ‘ because it is a language in which data models can be expressed.There is also a textual variant and a graphical variant (called Express-G).
OWL stands for ‘ Web Ontology language ‘ because the goal is to express it show.
Both ‘ languages ‘ are meta-languages because they do not include vocabulary (vocabulary) of the information to be exchanged, but only a limited number of concepts and terms to capture information about information.
An example of a modeling language that does include the vocabulary of natural languages are the different variants of Gellish, such as Gellish formal English and Gellish formally Dutch.Gellish is intended to express both knowledge and information about individual things, both in a formalised computer interpretable way, using, for example, the Gellish English Dictionary. See further www.gellish.net