Are there massless particles ?

As the teacher “Bömmel” in the Feuerzangenbowle said: “There more put us janz stupid.And then mer say: “That depends”

The standard model of elementary particles describes the properties of all known “fundamental” particles and their interactions.

Matter consists of six quarks and six leptons.In addition, there are their respective antiparticles.

The electrical charge of the quarks is 2/3 or -1/3, the leptons -1 or 0. The strong, weak and electromagnetic interaction is mediated by gluons (g), W- and Z-eichbosons or photons (g).

Quarks are found in three states (“colors”) and gluons in eight.Eichbosons and subsequently quarks and leptons get their sluggish mass through their interaction with the Higgs field. Its quant is the Higgs particle (H). The matter of the “visible” universe, including man, is entirely composed of electrons (e) as well as up and down quarks (u, d). The latter two consist of protons and neutrons. Heavier quarks, muons, and muons (t) and tauons (t) are unstable. The electrically neutral neutrinos (s) interact only weakly with the other particles.

Particles always have a certain, albeit very small, mass, as well as a charge (positive, negative or neutral).

Each particle moves through space at a speed or swings around a place.However, at a certain point in time it can only be in a specific place (local confinement).

Waves, on the other hand, spread in space and can simultaneously act at different points with different intensities.In addition, waves can reinforce each other by overlaying, or even erase (interference).

Although these properties seem to contradict each other, they can be observed on the same object: depending on this, either wave or particle properties can be shown.This is the case with the photon, i.e. the light.

The light always has waves and particle properties.However, only either / or!

Photons are the smallest energy units of light and lose their existence through the complete energy release to matter.They always move at a constant speed c = 300 000 kilometers per second in a vacuum. The energy and impulse of the photons thus have a connection with the wave properties of the light.

Photons are often presented as completely massless.In physics in quantum electrodynamics, the photon belongs to the calibration bosons, as it serves as a mediator of electromagnetic interaction. The resting mass is the mass that a body has in a reference system in which it rests.

Photons therefore have no resting mass, they cannot be in peace in any system.Well, if photons didn’t move, they wouldn’t be photons, of course!

However, each photon still has a certain energy and this contains according to the mass-energy equivalence

This “mass” causes photons to be distracted by gravitational fields and can lose or gain energy.Such phenomena are now experimentally confirmed. So again nothing with completely massless!

But the gluon is supposed to be something like that.It is a massless ETWAS that conveys the interaction between the quarks analogous to the role of the photon for electromagnetic interaction.

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